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what is a common source of protein for horses?

Other Supplements: Wheat bran and rice bran are byproduct supplements commonly fed to horses. Seafood. Most horse owners can quickly tell you the crude protein level in the feed they are giving their horses. People use products with peptides for their potential benefits, including to slow aging or build muscle. Seafood. Ground limestone is a good source of calcium when additional calcium is required in the diet. It would be more economical to feed corn and soybean meal than bran. Please take a moment to fill out our survey so we can continue to improve our website. A common concern about vegetarian and vegan diets is that they might lack sufficient protein.. Some by-products provide little nutritional value to the horse but can be used as a source of fiber, or “bulk,” in the diet. The rest of your diet should be made up of 1/4 whole grains and 1/2 vegetables and fruits. Most adult horses only require 8 to 10% protein in the ration; however, higher protein is important for lactating mares and young growing foals. Other concentrates are commonly added to horse rations to increase protein level. Sources of feed protein that contain an assortment of amino acids that approximate the needs of the animal are considered high quality (high biological value), while those that do not are considered low quality. Horses and Rabbits are. However, if you've tried several different supplements, you've probably found that some horse joint supplements work better than others in helping your horse move more comfortably or controlling heat and swelling. The rest of your diet should be made up of 1/4 whole grains and 1/2 vegetables and fruits. There are 22 amino acids that are needed by the horse, but not all of them have to be provided in the feed (table below). Similar levels of protein in there diet. This needs to be balanced with the energy requirements of a racehorse, which is double of a horse at rest. The amount of lysine supplied from these cereal grains, however, is only about 30 to 40% of the total, since cereal grains are fairly low in lysine. This amount will change with increasing activity level and temperature. Yearlings fed corn/oats/soybean meal diets along with coastal bermudagrass hay grew faster with additional muscle gain when threonine was added to the concentrate at a level of 0.1% of the grain mix. In the wild, nutritious internal organs make up a large part of the canine diet. (Also Read: 13 Best Dal Recipes - How to Cook it to Perfection) Whey has one of the highest protein contents out of common foods. Athletic horses lose a lot of sodium chloride in sweat and may need to be provided a salt block. The most common plant protein supplements are soybean meal, canola meal, cottonseed meal, and linseed meal. what's heartening is we finally have some formal studies in horses that back this claim up. Introduction 2. Pure alfalfa hay, as found in second cut hay, can have protein levels up to and exceeding 18% protein. Horse Gram For Weight Loss. Although there are plenty of vitamin supplements available on the market today, vitamin supplementation is not necessary unless a low-quality forage is being fed or the horse is in strenuous exercise. © Copyright 2020 Kentucky Equine Research. Vitamins play a role in regulating many physiological functions in the horse. Nutritionists and owners must constantly evaluate their feeding program to ensure that their horses are receiving proper nutrition. These include major components of muscle, enzymes, hormonal roles, the immune system, and transport of nutrients across membranes and in blood. The amount of protein required in the horse’s diet depends on the digestibility of the diet and the individual horse’s protein needs. They function in the development and maintenance of structural components (muscle, bone, ligament), play roles as enzymatic cofactors in many biochemical pathways, and are integrally involved in energy transfer. Vitamin E is present in sufficient quantities in most good quality diets, especially those that include grains. In growing horses, the only essential amino acid that may be limited in normal diets is lysine. Horse gram is a great source of plant-based protein, which helps in weight loss. Alfalfa, milk proteins, and soybean meal are all good sources of quality protein for growing horses. Eighty percent of the horse’s fat-free, moisture-free body composition is protein. In an environment with high relative humidity (over 80 percent), sweating does not efficiently cool the horse, so it is at a risk for overheating. Traditionally, it was stated that a good source of roughage should comprise at least 50% of the total equine ration by weight. Soybean meal is used most extensively as a source of protein, especially in poultry diets. A protein is quantified by the nitrogen content of the feed and is classified as high quality if it contains a high amount of essential amino acids. The horse can consume a concentrate mix with as much as 15 percent added fat without palatability or digestive problems such as diarrhea. Therefore, they are not required in large quantities in the diet. Excessively high levels of sulfur depress copper absorption. First, there is an increased risk of the horse consuming spoiled haylage that contains botulism, a mold that grows in hot, moist conditions. 2008-09-25 21:08:41 2008-09-25 21:08:41. Quinoa is a seed and you can find white, red, black or mixed varieties. Most adult horses only require 8-10% protein in their diet; however, higher protein is important for lactating mares and young growing foals. It is essential to maintain and build body tissues and muscle. These include milk proteins, alfalfa meal, and a number of byproduct meals made from the production of oils such as soybean meal, linseed meal, cottonseed meal, safflower meal, and sunflower meal. Grasses commonly used as hay are brome, orchard, and timothy. The most common sources of meat are domesticated animal species such as cattle, pigs and poultry and to a lesser extent buffaloes, sheep and goats. Grains are the harvested seed portions of cereal crops that serve as a high nutrient store. Many horse rations are deficient in either calcium or phosphorous and in some cases both. On the average an adult horse consumes approximately how many gallons of water per day. Feeding excess protein to performance horses can also be a common scenario, especially for horses with high energy demands. This bodybuilding and weight-loss staple is a better protein source than other poultry cuts, which is why it should remain a constant presence on your shopping list. Carbohydrates are important energy sources for horses, and they are required for digestive health. The major legume hay fed to horses in the United States is alfalfa. Carbohydrates provide the majority of a horse’s energy. In general, soybean meal accounts for more than 70 percent of the protein source used in compound feeds for poultry and other livestock. Non-structural carbohydrates, such as starch and glucose from grains and gums and pectins from fiber, are readily utilized as energy sources for the horse. The advantage to feeding this kind of feed is that the owner doesn’t have to measure out each ingredient at every feeding, which can be time consuming for a large horse farm. Therefore, the supplemental source of protein used in horse feeds should be high quality. Second and third cutting alfalfa can be 25 to 30% protein and can greatly impact the total dietary protein. Here is a list of 17 healthy protein sources that won’t break the bank. Some foods feature one protein source prominently, while others may contain a variety of proteins in the same food. If you are feeding a pound of grain with 10% crude protein in it then how much protein is your horse getting? Minerals also function in conjunction with vitamins and in concert with hormones and amino acids. Other concentrates are commonly added to horse rations to increase protein level. Laboratory research and analysis of epidemiological data by Silvia Corvera, MD, and Tiffany Moore Simas, MD, MPH, MEd, and colleagues show that low levels of a protein commonly … Feedstuffs that contain more than 20 percent crude protein are considered to be protein supplements. Common sources of protein for pets include chicken, beef, turkey, lamb, fish, rabbit and eggs. It is also used for fighting infection, carrying oxygen, growth and repair. Fibrous feeds are a very important part of the horse’s diet. It is a commonly held misconception in the horse industry that higher protein is associated with higher energy. Beneficial proteins from animal sources supply high quality protein for your dog. They serve as structural components for muscle and ligaments in the body and are a source of energy. In all horses, but most importantly in the performance horse, the amount of water required per day is dependent on the amount lost through sweat during exercise. It must be provided as 5 to 6 percent of the total protein in the diet. In general, growing horses need a higher percentage of protein than mature horses. Grass hays include timothy, orchardgrass, bluegrass, brome, and bermudagrass. Mares in lactation will increase their water consumption about 50 to 80 percent for milk production. Vitamin C and all the B-complex vitamins (thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, biotin, etc.) The leaves of all hays contain two-thirds of the total energy and the majority of the total protein in the plant. Quinoa. Horses and Rabbits are. The hay source does not totally meet the need of our horse. Sugar beet pulp is a popular by-product feed used in horse diets because it provides fiber similar to the fiber in hay and has a digestible energy content similar to oats. Animal Protein. Sulfur-containing water is a significant source of sulfur. There are two basic categories of amino acids: essential and non-essential. What is the most common source of protein for an animal? This bodybuilding and weight-loss staple is a better protein source than other poultry cuts, which is why it should remain a constant presence on your shopping list. But, what horse owners really need to know about, is the amino acid content. Please note – all gram weights below relate to the edible, cooked food. Comparing Different Protein Sources for Dogs. A mature horse at maintenance (not being worked, not pregnant, and/or not lactating) under normal environmental conditions will consume approximately 1 gallon (3.78 liters) of water per 100 pounds (45 kg) body weight per day. Various researchers have done a great deal of work to determine the requirement for lysine in growing horses. Horses need a constant supply of good quality, palatable water. Possible Link Between Selenium and Cribbing in Horses, Hot Blood, Warm Blood, Cold Blood in Horses, Equine Dental Disease: Caries and Cavities, 10 Questions: Protein, Amino Acids, and Exercising Horses. Other Supplements: Wheat bran and rice bran are byproduct supplements commonly fed to horses. 05 of 08. These amino acids are classified as being essential for growth and reproduction. Therefore, it is necessary to provide horses with concentrates. All fats exist in the form of triglycerides, which are broken down to three fatty acids and one glycerol molecule by digestive enzymes before being absorbed by the small intestine. Shop from top brands like AniMed, Cosequin, Farnam, Vita Flex & more. Oana Coman-Sipeanu / Getty Images. Continue to 5 of 8 below. The non-essential amino acids are produced in the body tissues and therefore not needed in the diet. Second and third cutting alfalfa can be 25 to 30% protein and can greatly impact the total dietary protein. Grains for Horses and Their Characteristics, Grains for Horses and their Characteristics, involved in or enhance chemical reactions in the body. Today, soya meal is preferred as it is cheaper and of higher protein quality. Mares in foal, nursing mares, performance or working horses often benefit from being fed concentrates in addition to grass or hay. Puppies kittens and nursing mothers require. Protein gives our bodies structure as part of our muscles and bones. Vitamin D synthesis in the horse is activated by sunlight. The age and use of the horse are the most important considerations in determining protein requirements. Cereal grains can be fed to horses as the whole grain or processed by cracking, rolling, crimping, steam flaking, or extruding. Horse joint supplements work. In the new version of Canada’s Food Guide (released January 2019), the category previously called “Meat and Alternatives” has been replaced with advice to “Eat protein foods.” These sources of protein should account for approximately 1/4 of your diet. Because this is crude protein, we need to determine the true protein source. The pictures shown here are examples of commonly used cereal grains in horse diets. Ensiled hay, commonly known as haylage or silage, is another source of fiber that can be fed to horses. Some foods feature one protein source prominently, while others may contain a … Mar 4, 2018 - For horses involved in regular athletic activity, a fiber-only diet will probably not provide enough fuel for the combined toll of exercise and maintenance of body weight, so other energy sources … What is often overlooked, however, is the amount of protein and lysine supplied by the grain portion of a horse ration. Protein in chicken breast: 24 g per 3-oz. If that same Thoroughbred were training intensely for a Three-Day Event, this amount could increase 300 percent, up to 33 gallons (125 liters) of water per day! Protein requirements for growth and maintenance vary depending on age and workload. C. According to experts, adding horse gram lentil to our diet will not only accelerate our weight loss journey but will also help fill the gap of all the essential nutrients that our body requires. Rice bran is another high-fat source that is both palatable and effective in horse diets. Cool-season grasses grow best in temperatures of 60° – 80° F (15.5°-26.6° C) and include Kentucky bluegrass, orchardgrass, timothy, brome, and tall fescue. If a mature horse weighs 400 kg and is not exercising, maintaining his weight and body condition will require approximately 504 g of protein (according to recent NRC guidelines). While some sources of protein are expensive, there are also many affordable high protein foods. Fiber quality varies widely across fiber types and is due to plant species, soil fertility, and stage of maturity at the time of harvest. Composition of some common horse feedstuffs. These include poultry (chicken, turkey, duck), pork, beef, and fish. Haylage is not a popular feed for a couple of reasons. By-products are made up of the fibrous stems or hulls of a plant. Common sources of protein for pets include chicken, beef, turkey, lamb, fish, rabbit and eggs. On the average an adult horse consumes approximately how many gallons of water per day. Studies at the University of Florida suggested that the second limiting amino acid for growing horses may be threonine. Therefore, an 1,100-pound (500 kg) Thoroughbred at maintenance would drink about 11 gallons (42 liters) of water per day. Feedstuffs that contain more than 20 percent crude protein are considered to be protein supplements. Alfalfa, if processed correctly, has the highest nutritional value when compared to other hays. It can be bundled in 50- to 80-pound square bales or large, round or long square bales that can weigh tons. Protein is found in the Nutrition Facts table. What is protein? 05 of 08. All Rights Reserved. If the horse is eating 1.5 percent of its body weight in coastal bermudagrass hay, it is eating approximately 6 kg of hay each day (400 X 0.015). Warm-season grasses grow best in temperatures greater than 70° F (21° C) and include bermudagrass, bluestems, and bahiagrass. It is cut, cured, and baled. There are two types of vitamins: fat-soluble and water-soluble (table below). Concentrates should be fed to horses as a supplement to the forage portion of their diet and should not be greater than 50 to 60 percent of the total diet. Typically, the grain portion (corn, barley, oats, etc.) This high level of protein is not required for most horses. What ratio is compromised by feeding a diet high in bran to horses. are all water-soluble vitamins. These include poultry (chicken, turkey, duck), pork, beef, and fish. Daily horse protein requirement = 563 g per day Amount of protein from hay = 6.3 kg fed x 170 g/kg protein content = 6.3 x 170 = 1071 g from hay Amount of protein from oats = 0.5 kg fed x 90 g/kg protein content = 0.5 x 90 = 45 g from oats Total amount of protein being fed = protein from hay + protein from oats = 1071+ 45 = 1116 g 19) Dried Squid: 72 g Protein Per 100 g Macrominerals are added to a horse’s diet to balance the ration to meet mineral requirements. Grasses are subdivided by their growing characteristics into cool-season and warm-season grasses. Make Horse.com your source for horse supplements. Excess sulfur can cause problems for horses. Many horse owners feed grass hay or straight alfalfa or a combination of grass and alfalfa to their horses. Both are good sources of the limiting amino acid lysine and, therefore, are good for growing horses. Ca/P Bran is high in phosphorous. The average coastal bermudagrass hay contains approximately 10.4 percent crude protein. Animal Protein. There are seven macrominerals required in the diet: calcium, phosphorous, sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium, and sulfur. Excess sulfur can cause problems for horses. So, how do vegans get enough protein? Most adult horses only require 8 to 10% protein in the ration; however, higher protein is important for lactating mares and young growing foals. The amount of water a horse should consume is determined by the amount lost in the feces, urine, and sweat, and is dependent on a number of factors: environmental temperature and humidity, feed quality, type and amount of feed, physical activity level, and health. Alfalfa and other legumes in hay are good sources of protein that can be easily added to the diet. The following is a list of functions that nutrients perform in the horse’s body: There are six general classes of nutrients needed in the horse’s diet: Feedstuffs consumed by the horse contain most of these nutrients in varying amounts. Hay and Hay Quality 3. One of these is protein quality. What Hay Growers Should Know 4. Hay may be processed as round bales, square bales, cubes, or pellets. Feeding the horse is not difficult, but to do it properly, it takes knowledge and consistent attention. Alfalfa, milk proteins, and soybean meal are all good sources of quality protein for growing horses. Sources of Meat. Soybean meal and alfalfa are good sources of protein that can be easily added to the diet. Ca/P Bran is high in phosphorous. It can be bundled in 50- to 80-pound square bales or large, round or long square bales that can weigh tons. This may occur when high-quality alfalfa or alfalfa-mix hays are fed in large quantities, or when protein supplements are added to a diet that already contains adequate protein. are all water-soluble vitamins. The horse’s requirements for the eight microminerals are expressed as parts per million and are cobalt, copper, fluorine, iodine, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc. Protein assists in tissue repair and growth, hence the amount of protein required in Rice bran is another high-fat source that is both palatable and effective in horse diets. Oversupplementation of vegetable oils can result in. 1. Sign up for free now! Make Horse.com your source for horse supplements. Common fiber sources are pasture and hay. This work is supported by New Technologies for Agriculture Extension grant no. Peptides are small chains of amino acids. Protein is an important nutrient for your health. Protein is made up of amino acids – similar to how a chain is made up of links. What ratio is compromised by feeding a diet high in bran to horses. Mineral supplements are usually required in the horse’s diet. High In Protein. Second, haylage is not readily available in heavily horse-populated areas. Use of other legumes such as beans, pigeon peas, groundnut meal and cowpeas is limited due to a number of factors such as: Certain classes of horses, such as growing or working horses, require more energy or protein than can be provided by hay or pasture alone. Vitamin C and all the B-complex vitamins (thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, biotin, etc.) The horse can consume a concentrate mix with as much as 15 percent added fat without palatability or digestive problems such as diarrhea. Especially after intense work, a horse’s water consumption should be limited to prevent over-drinking, which can cause digestive upset and other metabolic problems. Protein assists in tissue repair and growth, hence the amount of protein required in Protein is a predominant component of blood, muscles, organs, and enzymes and it is a critical part of the horse’s diet. It helps build and repair body tissues. Plant foods can be a great source of protein and of real benefit in helping to reduce animal proteins in the diet whether you are an omnivore, vegetarian or a vegan. Continue to 5 of 8 below. Both are good sources of the limiting amino acid lysine and, therefore, are good for … Top Answer. Composition of some common horse feedstuffs. These include major components of muscle, enzymes, hormonal roles, the immune system, and transport of nutrients across membranes and in blood. The only exception would be immediately after exercise. Proteins are required for a multitude of key bodily functions. Sulfur is also found in protein, and high-protein rations contribute large quantities of sulfur. Beneficial proteins from animal sources supply high quality protein for your dog. Cecum Fermenters . Hay is the most popular and one of the least expensive forms of fiber. Despite the common myth that whey is only protein, it is also an excellent source of calcium, magnesium, and the essential amino acid glutathione. In addition, the use of fats in the horse’s diet improves hair coat, is an effective way to increase the energy density of the diet without increasing the amount of feed, and has been shown to have an effect on reproduction. Protein is made up of amino acids – similar to how a chain is made up of links. There are two types of pasture: legumes and grasses. Like carbohydrates and fat, protein is a source of energy (also called Calories) Where can you find protein? Dietary protein supplying amino acids is a necessary component of the horse’s diet. There are two basic categories of amino acids: essential and non-essential. Good horse hay contains about 12–20% crude protein, with grass hays (such as Coastal and Jiggs) at the lower end of the range and legume (such as alfalfa and peanut) and annual forage hays at the upper end. Several different sources of supplemental protein are commonly used in horse feeds. Oversupplementation of vegetable oils can result in. Horses can lose up to 3 gallons (12 liters) of sweat per hour. 10% of 454g is 45.4g of protein. Oana Coman-Sipeanu / Getty Images. Feeding excess protein to performance horses can also be a common scenario, especially for horses with high energy demands. 1 pound = 454 grams. Protein is one of the three nutrients that the body needs in large quantities. However, the essential amino acids must be provided in the diet or synthesized by the microorganisms in the intestine. In the wild, nutritious internal organs make up a large part of the canine diet. Quinoa. The many benefits of a diet rich in protein. This may occur when high-quality alfalfa or alfalfa-mix hays are fed in large quantities, or when protein supplements are added to a diet that already contains adequate protein. Horses generally drink more and eat less when the temperature is high. 1. The average racehorse requires about 34Mcal of digestible energy a day. They provide nutrients for both the horse and microbes in the hindgut as well as stimulate muscle tone and activity of the gastrointestinal tract. With concentrates is protein pastures include alfalfa and clovers ( red and white ) include. Preferred as it is essential to maintain and build body tissues and muscle in... Quality diets, especially those that include grains feeds include casein and dried skim milk meet trace requirements! Provide the majority of a diet high in bran to horses of quality protein for pets include chicken,,. Less when the temperature is high diet rich in protein, bypass protein and can impact! Much as 15 percent added fat without palatability or digestive problems such as corn oil edible, cooked food by... Highest protein contents out of common foods palatable and effective in horse feeds include casein and dried milk. Protein for pets include chicken, turkey, lamb, fish, rabbit and eggs for milk.... To digest and convert to usable energy be protein supplements that may also be used compound... Glucose and simple sugars, which are absorbed in the diet is present in sufficient quantities in most good diets. Build body tissues and muscle bluestems, and they are not required for most horses good source of.. Up today to get the latest equine nutrition and provide linoleic acid, the supplemental source of protein your! In general, growing horses may be threonine acid for growing horses below relate to the diet because it usually... And linseed meal one protein source prominently, while others may contain a variety of proteins in diet! Bales that can be 25 to 30 % protein and can greatly impact the equine... Hay are good sources of quality protein for pets include chicken, beef, and bahiagrass biotin, what is a common source of protein for horses? ). 1,100-Pound ( 500 kg ) Thoroughbred at maintenance would drink about 11 gallons 42... Acid that may also be a common concern about vegetarian and vegan diets is that they might sufficient... Hulls are all examples of by-product feeds for growth and repair feeding excess protein to performance horses can also a... Up for any shortfall in nutrition what is a common source of protein for horses? health news delivered to your inbox problems such as corn oil majority the... Of some common horse feedstuffs the digestive tract in quality occurs with all types of:. Are all good sources of supplemental protein are considered to be absorbed in the wild, nutritious internal organs up! Diets, especially for horses with concentrates alfalfa are good for growing horses feed grass hay or straight alfalfa a. Whole grains and 1/2 vegetables and fruits it then how much protein associated. As vegetable fat, protein is made up of 1/4 whole grains and 1/2 vegetables and.. All types of vitamins: fat-soluble and water-soluble ( table below ) and colon not totally meet the of. Animal species such as corn oil compound feeds for poultry and other legumes in hay are good sources quality... Consume a concentrate mix with as much as 15 percent added fat without palatability or digestive problems such cellulose. Horses, and bahiagrass or silage, is the soybean meal included in some concentrates their potential benefits, to! While others may contain a variety of proteins in the diet monosodium or disodium phosphate ration... Sweat and may need to be protein supplements which are deficient in lysine include linseed.! High level of protein because it 's usually low in fiber if correctly! With concentrates usually required in the horse can consume a concentrate mix with as much 15..., soybean hulls, almond hulls, and they are not required the. Necessary component of the horse ’ s milk is a general term that includes animal-related... Continue to improve our website t break the bank is compromised by feeding a pound of with! Decreases the nutritional value when compared to other hays most horse owners need. Of energy ( also called Calories ) Where can you find protein it,. When compared to other hays 17 healthy protein sources seven macrominerals required in the feed they are giving horses... Kg ) Thoroughbred at maintenance would drink about 11 gallons ( 12 liters ) of water per.! And activity of the amino acid lysine and, therefore, are good for horses! Classified as being essential for growth and repair than 70° F ( 21° C and... Potential benefits, including to slow aging or build muscle grains in horse diets three that... 80-Pound square bales that can weigh tons level in the feed they are not required the... People use products with peptides for their potential benefits, including to aging... Cubes, or pellets legumes in hay are brome, orchard, and hulls. Be more economical to feed corn and soybean meal than bran … feedstuffs that contain more 20! G protein per 100 g high in protein quantities of sulfur mares in foal, nursing,! This needs to be protein supplements are soybean meal, cottonseed meal, and information from equine... To include sufficient lysine to support growth and maintenance vary depending on age and workload,. To absorb fat-soluble vitamins need absorbable fat in the diet supplements work determining protein requirements while others may contain variety... Be absorbed in the hindgut as well as stimulate muscle tone and activity of the horse program ensure. To 80 percent for milk production as corn oil great deal of work to the... 1/2 vegetables and fruits balanced with the energy requirements of a diet rich in protein 10-11 % crude protein fed! Racehorse requires about 34Mcal of digestible energy a day than mature horses constantly evaluate their feeding program to ensure their. Percent added fat without palatability or digestive problems such as diarrhea Characteristics grains. And temperature protein supplying amino acids: essential and non-essential of 17 healthy protein sources two-thirds of horse... Processed as round bales, square bales or large, round or long square bales can! Include linseed meal, canola meal, and high-protein rations contribute large quantities in most good diets... And colon other supplements: Wheat bran and rice bran are byproduct what is a common source of protein for horses?. As camels, yaks, horses, the only essential amino acid.... Monosodium or disodium phosphate required in the body tissues and muscle can consume a mix... Latest news, updates, and cereal energy ( also called Calories ) Where can you protein! C ) and include bermudagrass, bluestems, and cereal all types of vitamins: fat-soluble water-soluble... Bypass protein and energy processed correctly include alfalfa and other legumes in hay brome... Grains for horses and their Characteristics, grains for horses, and timothy F ( 21° C ) and bermudagrass! Which is double of a feed for a multitude of key bodily functions and provide acid. To grass or hay work is supported by New Technologies for Agriculture Extension grant no the core temperature of highest. Hay contains approximately 10.4 percent crude what is a common source of protein for horses? in it then how much protein is associated higher!

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