cultural effects of the french revolution

The French Revolution occurred at a time when rapid economic change was already altering the way ordinary British men and women led their lives. Several popular songs emerged during the French Revolution, most notably the military anthem La Marseillaise, written by Rouget de Lisle in 1792. Elborg Forster (Cambridge, 1981 [1978]). ... who explains how he created these spectacular effects and why he feels attached to the monument – like so many other admirers. Britain and the French Revolution edited by H T Dickinson (Macmillan, 1989) Partners in Revolution: The United Irishmen and France by Marianne … Some historians pointed out that the foundations for such claims actually lay deep in the epistemology of the eighteenth century, when sensationalist thinkers had insisted that a new society, with a new kind of man and woman and a new kind of political order at its center, could only come about and be maintained through the re-education of manners and habits, starting with the senses. Inspiration for the former derives from such classics of postcolonial thought as C. L. R. James, The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L’Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution (London, 1938); Aimé Césaire, Toussaint L’Ouverture: La Révolution française et le problème colonial (Paris, 1960); and Louis Sala-Molins, The Dark Side of the Light: Slavery and the French Enlightenment, trans. Nationalism rose during the French revolution because the demands of the Bourgeois leaders of the revolution were framed as being demands that where in the interests of the people i.e. The culture of the French Revolution also included its own soundtrack. When Louis XVI returned to Paris on July 17th 1789, three days after the fall of the Bastille, he volunteered to wear a cockade of red and blue (the colours of Paris) to show his loyalty to the city. A note of skepticism (“doubts and queries,” in his terms) was already evident in Chartier’s path breaking Cultural Origins of the French Revolution of 1991.20 The real pushback began in the mid to late 1990s, led in good part by William Sewell, who was himself strongly associated with the rise of the new cultural history in the previous decade.21 The charge was along the lines of the baby having been thrown out with the bathwater. Economic Cause. The social causes also led to the outbreak of the revolution. There have been many efforts subsequently to describe and to take stock of the new cultural history of the French Revolution specifically, from its roots to its possible future offshoots; among the more recent, see Suzanne Desan, “What’s After Political Culture? We distinguish three de nitions of ‘French treatment:’ (1) length of French occupation (in years), (2) a dummy for French control during the Revolutionary period prior to the What I am sketching here, though, as something like an institutional approach to culture, in the first case, versus a largely anthropological one, in the second, is certainly too neat.10 In fact, the two strands of the cultural history of the French Revolution that emerged in the late 1980s and soldiered on into the new century share a number of key premises, all with lasting implications for the way historians view the French Revolution and, for that matter, culture tout court. The best known was Marianne, a female personification of the French nation not dissimilar to Britannia (Britain) or Lady Liberty (United States). 1. Instead, historians’ attention turned—also under the broad rubric of cultural history—to symbolic programs and forms of signification operative in political and social life more broadly. 1 (Slavery and Citizenship in the Age of the Atlantic Revolutions) (Spring 2003): 83–102; David Geggus, “Print Culture and the Haitian Revolution: The Written and Spoken Word,” in Liberty! Perhaps this is because no really new paradigm or even approach has been offered since the heyday of cultural history. The French revolution is one of the most important events in history that had a monumental effect upon politics and society. In France, as in most other European nations, the monarch ruled on the basis of the divine right of kings. For more information on usage, please refer to our Terms of Use. The French Revolution had many causes for example Economic, Social, and lets not forget the Geographic impact. 3 (June 2012): 746–71. The ornate costumes and hairstyles of the aristocracy were abandoned in favour of simpler forms of dress, and it became fashionable to mimic the dress of the sans culottes. It was reportedly sung by some of the fédérés who stormed the Tuileries Palace in August 1792. The traditional white of the Bourbon monarchy was added shortly after, reportedly by the Marquis de Lafayette, forming the famous tricolore (‘three colour’) cockade. The French Revolution was not a social revolution. All of this was premised on the idea that humans are motivated, at least in moments of profound upheaval, not just by rational calculations about their material interests but also by affective ties and sensibilities, habits, and norms, and they routinely draw on nonlinguistic signs and systems of meaning to explain themselves right along with words. Perhaps this says more about external factors than about the way that the history of the French Revolution is being written about at present; France has, after all, been largely displaced from the global popular imagination in recent years, and its history has largely followed suit. By the year 2000, many historians were saying that the field of the French Revolution was in intellectual disarray. France had two big revolutions, and so did China. And while some scholars have used this trans-national focus to emphasize the rise of national distinctions in the realm of culture, others now draw our attention to commonalities derived from shared cultural sources and shared circuits of cultural as well as commercial exchange before, during, and after 1789–99.18. A recent volume called Scripting Revolution, assembled in the wake of the Arab Spring of 2010, promises to resuscitate the study of revolutions as a political form that moves across time rather than space, with the French Revolution as a central example of a type, but it does so largely according to a discursive model, associated primarily with the work of Keith Baker, that is now several decades old.27 Have we reached a point at which neither our methods nor our claims are fresh enough to make readers with more than antiquarian interest take note? In the 1960s, Chinese Communist Party leader Mao Zedong came to feel that the current party leadership in China, as in the Soviet Union, was moving too far in a revisionist direction, with an emphasis on expertise rather than on ideological purity. The following selection combines introductory and general histories with a few more specialized works. Some of this new research put a spotlight on those newly in charge—political leaders of various kinds—and the old paradigms, as well as startlingly new ones, that these (primarily) men drew upon in an effort to impose a “revolutionary” culture on the new nation. Spread of Enlightenment ideas around Europe. It is worth noting too the publication in 2012 in French of Richard Hofstadter’s classic on the subject of the sources of American conspiracy thinking as Le style paranoiaque. The French Revolution created turmoil across the whole of Europe, via a series of events which continue to captivate and inspire massive debate. Charlotte Mandel (Stanford, CA, 1997 [1993]); and Hans-Jürgen Lüsebrink and Rolf Reichardt, The Bastille: A History of a Symbol of Despotism, trans. The revolution overthrew the cultural belief that there was a divine right of kings to rule, it formed the road to democracy, by destroying the feudal system of kings a classes. David S. Shields and Mariselle Meléndez (Worcester, MA, 2007), 88–92; and Doris Garraway, ed., Tree of Liberty: Cultural Legacies of the Haitian Revolution in the Atlantic World (Charlottesville, VA, 2008). Recent scholarship, with few exceptions, has not had the reach beyond specialists that the work of Ozouf, Darnton, Hunt, and Chartier had in the 1980s and early 90s. The Great Cat Massacre and Other Episodes in French Cultural History. Historians of political culture, it was widely agreed, also needed to recover and pay attention to visual messages, to nonlinguistic aural signs, to bodily and physical expression, to emotional cues, even to unarticulated assumptions and expectations. Or is that question itself obsolete? Its repercussions include lessening the importance of religion; rise of Modern Nationalism; spread of Liberalism and igniting the Age of Revolutions. Both the French and Industrial revolution had a major impact on the establishment of Sociology as a Social Science. He removed all sign of skin disease and placed Marat’s body in an imaginary space. The French revolution in 1789 was said to be more ideological. Others were borrowed from ancient and classical symbolism and the American Revolution. According to Lazare Carnot, a member of the Convention, La Marseillaise was so inspirational that it added 100,000 new recruits to the revolutionary army. The American Revolution occurred due to cultural differences, the ineffectiveness of England’s colonial policy, and the effects of the French and Indian War. The result was the flourishing of what we now call “the cultural history of the French Revolution.”1, Indeed, by the end of that decade, there were actually two important versions of this trend, each associated with a distinct understanding of culture, though clearly substantial overlaps existed between them. French Revolution: Effects of the Revolution The French Revolution, though it seemed a failure in 1799 and appeared nullified by 1815, had far-reaching results. Politically, the governmental structure of the Revolution moved from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy to a republic and finally to an oligarchy. As I write, in Year Two of the Trump regime and Year One of the Macron moment and against a backdrop of a near-constant conversation about the fragility of republics, the threats of growing inequality and statelessness, and resurgent populism, there is the strong possibility that we will have to reconsider yet again our well-established ways of understanding transitions in and out of democracy, starting with the Revolution of 1789. French English German: Budget: 300 million francs: Box office: $4.8 million: La Révolution française is a two-part 1989 film, co-produced by France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom and Canada for the 200th anniversary of the French Revolution. In July 1795, it was adopted as the national anthem of the French Republic, a title it still holds today. It contains 231,429 words in 354 pages and was updated on December 2nd 2020. Yet, that said, even way back at the time of the bicentennial in 1989, a good number of historians had a strong sense that there was also something problematic about this way of making sense of the French Revolution. Keith Baker emerged in the 1980s as the most influential exponent in the Anglophone world of this discourse-centered approach (see Jack Censer’s essay in this forum for more on this subject).5 Conceptual historians in the German tradition also played an important role in drawing attention to the new vocabulary of the revolutionary moment, as did French semiotic historians like Jacques Guilhaumou interested in language and power.6 But this second strand of cultural history was not limited to the analysis of rhetoric. Email: Search for other works by this author on: Published by Oxford University Press 2018. Eiffel Tower: A French revolution. On the epistemological theories of the eighteenth century and their relationship to the linguistic or semiotic turn of the late twentieth century, see esp. The French Revolution abolished the aristocracy and monarchy rule and established democratic principles in France. Cultural . Date published: August 15, 2020 Similar kinds of cultural history have, by now, long made their mark in the writing of the histories of the late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century revolutions of North and South America as well; for examples, see the notes to Perl-Rosenthal, “Atlantic Cultures.”. See, in particular, Timothy Tackett, The Coming of the Terror in the French Revolution (Cambridge, MA, 2015) in which the spread of both conspiracy thinking and false news are central concerns. Sophia Rosenfeld, The French Revolution in Cultural History, Journal of Social History, Volume 52, Issue 3, Spring 2019, Pages 555–565, https://doi.org/10.1093/jsh/shy078. (Marseille, 2012). One man dominated the artistic culture of the French Revolution. Jean-Sylvain Bailly stands at the centre and administers the oath, while the other National Assembly deputies respond in a variety of ways, from pensive (Sieyès) to optimistic (Dom Gerle and the other clergymen) to exuberant (Robespierre). In the case of the French Revolution, those cultural antecedents have been identified as the rise of a public sphere (and public opinion) apart from the court or state; the development of new kinds of urban consumer culture; the emergence of novel gender norms; changes in habits of listening, looking, reading, communicating, and experiencing emotions, including both pleasure and fear; and shifts in religious practice and belief—all of which require that historians explore the culture of the late Old Regime and Enlightenment within the same framework as the Revolution itself. (2011). Lynn Hunt (Oakland, CA, 1989) and Beyond the Cultural Turn: New Directions in the Study of Society and Culture, eds. In the end, though, what happens outside the writing of history is what ends up moving historiography and historical methods in new directions—just as it did in the late 1980s when the new cultural history was getting off the ground. Start studying Effects of the French Revolution. This is a painting of the battle of Germantown. Alan Sheridan (Cambridge, MA, 1988 [1976]); Thomas Crow, Painters and Public Life in Eighteenth-Century Paris (New Haven, CT, 1985); Robert Darnton and Daniel Roche, eds., Revolution in Print: The Press in France, 1775–1800 (Oakland, CA, 1989); and Emmet Kennedy, A Cultural History of the French Revolution (New Haven, CT, 1989). This French Revolution site contains articles, sources and perspectives on events in France between 1781 and 1795. In early October 1789, rumours reached Paris that the king’s soldiers had stomped tricolore cockades underfoot during a drunken party. To reinforce Marat’s alleged good character, David places a banknote and a letter in this hands, the letter reading “Give this banknote to the mother of five whose husband died defending the fatherland”. Political Cause: During the eighteen the Century France was the centre of autocratic monarchy. First, political and social revolutions can be, and are, caused in good part by prior cultural shifts. While beyond the scope of this article, it is important to note that literary scholars, inspired by the broader historicist turn of these same years, also contributed to this growing body of revolutionary scholarship; see, for example, Marie-Hélène Huet, Mourning Glory: The Will of the French Revolution (Philadelphia, PA, 1997). That includes Laurent Dubois, Gary Wilder, and especially the historically inclined political philosopher Susan Buck-Morss, whose influential Hegel, Haiti and Universal History (2009) has urged historians to think about what it would mean to put the emancipation and the revolution in colonial Saint-Domingue rather than France at the center of their narratives of the origins of modernity and its human rights principles.25 Buck-Morss looks to the silences in European philosophy for guidance in this project. But a backlash was already underway. The revolution had an impact on the way that people dressed. Ian Coller, Natacha Coquery, and Richard Flamein, “Ce que les cultures matérielles peuvent apporter à l’historiographie de la Révolution française,” Annales historiques de la Révolution française 383 (2016): 1–20. Its impact on French nationalism was profound, while also stimulating nationalist movements throughout Europe. The displacement of these Frenchme… The first revolution in China was more like a proxy war. Share using Email. One of the main causes of the American Revolution was the cultural differences that had developed between the British and the American colonies. 4 (Fall 2009): 655–61; Gary Wilder, “Unthinking French History: Colonial Studies Beyond National Identity,” in After the Imperial Turn: Thinking with and through the Nation, ed. Mao’s own position in government had weakened after the failure of his “Great Leap Forward” (1958-60) and the economic crisis that followed. Over the course of the 18th century, France experienced the unfolding of pathetically sad developments and unprecedented public The historiography of the French Revolution stretches back over two hundred years, as commentators and historians have sought to answer questions regarding the origins of the Revolution, and its meaning and effects. The more egalitarian “Citoyen” and “Citoyenne” were used in their place. This is a decidedly different project from attempting to place the French Revolution in a world history context, i.e., Alan Forrest and Matthias Middell, eds., The Routledge Companion to the French Revolution in World History (New York and London, 2015) or Lynn Hunt, Suzanne Desan, and William Nelson, eds., The French Revolution in Global Perspective (Ithaca, NY, 2013). In the course of the 1980s, the so-called “new cultural history” took shape, at first largely in the United States, in response to Geertzian anthropology, the poststructuralism of Derrida and Foucault, feminist theory, and more indirectly, the “culture wars” over identity politics being played out in Washington and beyond. Other variants focused more on ordinary people—including women, since the home was as much at stake in revolutionary culture as the public sphere—taking matters into their own hands and erasing, resisting, circumventing, reconfiguring, upholding, or repoliticizing the representations, signs, and symbols imposed upon them by, first, the monarchy and church and, then, new municipal and national governments and local political organizations. French Revolution, revolutionary movement that shook France between 1787 and 1799 and reached its first climax there in 1789—hence the conventional term ‘Revolution of 1789,’ denoting the end of the ancien regime in France and serving also to distinguish that event from the later French … One of the most famous symbols of the French Revolution was the cockade, a tight knot of coloured ribbons that was pinned to one’s hat, tunic, lapel or sleeve. The culture of the French Revolution was not confined to high art. This criticism, derived in part from classic works of postcolonial and subaltern studies, has been particularly pronounced in the work of scholars whose primary focus has been neither metropolitan nor revolutionary France. It became a popular military song and was played wherever troops were being massed, mobilised or marched out. One of the first revolutionary songs was Ça Ira! The French Revolution began in 1789 with the Taking of the Bastille. ... Before and during the American Revolution religion (specifically Catholicism) had a great impact on people. The revolution was heavy with symbolism. Colin Jones, The Smile Revolution in Eighteenth-Century France (Oxford, 2014). (Dijon, 2008); Peter Burke, What is Cultural History? In France the bourgeois and landowning classes emerged as the dominant power. The Main Causes While numerous factors contributed to the Revolution, most historians agree that a few key events and philosophies prevalent in late 18th century France led to a society that was ripe for revolting. The ideas and values of the French Revolution were reflected in the visual arts, literature, music and dress. Others look to material culture for a way in.26 The shared goal, though, is to give the history of the revolutionary era back its contemporary relevance, which is to say, its (lost) political bite. One of the most famous was the bonnet rouge or ‘liberty cap’.Â, This symbol, derived from the ancient Phrygian cap given to liberated slaves, had been used extensively during the American Revolution. This kind of thinking had already crucially informed the path-breaking work of Robert Darnton in The Great Cat Massacre and Other Episodes in French Cultural History (1984), in which the coming of the Revolution of 1789 functions as the backdrop to almost all the chapters, and of Lynn Hunt, in the first half of her Politics, Culture and Class in the French Revolution (also 1984), in which the Revolution comes to life as a struggle for control over both linguistic and nonlinguistic signs.7 Both texts quickly became classics, reorienting the discipline of history more broadly but especially shaping writing about late-eighteenth-century France. The book that originally made Sewell so central to the development of a cultural history of the French Revolution—in this case, out of social and labor history—was his Work and Revolution in France: The Language of Labor from the Old Regime to 1848 (Cambridge, 1980). The French Revolution had a great and far-reaching impact that probably transformed the world more than any other revolution. When Louis XVI returned to Paris on July 17th 1789, three days after the fall of the Bastille, he volunteer… Simple and restrained dress – muslin frocks or dresses, neatly cut suits and tunics, modest wigs and hairstyles – became the order of the day. ADVERTISEMENTS: Causes of French Revolution: Political, Social and Economic Causes! However, many people do not consider the substantial effect that this had music. Or, to put it slightly differently, culture is a driver of sociopolitical revolution, not simply a superstructural reflection of its values. From 1787 to 1799 theFrench Revolution took place. Sophia Rosenfeld, A Revolution in Language: The Problem of Signs in Late Eighteenth-Century France (Stanford, CA, 2001); and David Bates, Enlightenment Aberrations: Error and Revolution in France (Ithaca, NY, 2002). For one hopes the French Revolution will remain a particularly productive laboratory for thinking about exactly how to write history going forward too. However, the philosophies of Enlightenment thinkers made the public … Either way, for self-described cultural historians in this vein, what was increasingly also being called the study of “political culture” demanded particular attention to the analysis of the conventions associated with political language and the business of naming. Political Cause 2. The outcome of the French Revolution, which began in 1789 and lasted for more than a decade, had numerous social, economic, and political effects not just … While the French Revolution was a complex conflict with numerous triggers and causes, the American Revolution set the stage for an effective uprising that the French had observed firsthand. The first revolution in France was driven by new capitalists. The French Revolution (1789 – 1799), had a deep and lasting impact upon the whole of Europe, profoundly challenging traditional notions of authority and political power. The French Catholic Church had been very powerful and nearly all of France’s population had been Catholic. Recently we have even been treated to the quite persuasive claim (on the part of the great British historian Colin Jones) that late eighteenth-century France underwent a “smile revolution” premised on period changes in notions of politeness, ideals of emotional expressivity, and the practice of dentistry alike.19 This is history that comes with an ironic subtext: that culture, in the sense of learned behavior and practices of signification, helps explain even that which would seem to be most fundamental and prior to culture (hence the “invention” of everything from the smile to society, identity, and politics itself) and that, conversely, studies of even the most seemingly trivial aspects of a culture—such as the new taste for teeth in portraiture—can reveal profound truths about core values and meaning-making and their evolution. Its motor was instead the complicated cultural transformation of the country's possessing, administrative, and educated elites in the preceding century. Citizens abandoned the culture and formalities of pre-revolutionary society, including bows, curtseys and genuflection and the doffing of hats. The Scottish physician John Moore, who visited Paris during the revolution, wrote with some disapproval about this new way of doing things: “There is in Paris at present a great affectation of that plainness in dress and simplicity of expression which is supposed to belong to republicans… People are saying ‘Tu’ or ‘Thou’ to each other. It occurred from the years of 1789 to 1799, and continued to have long term effects not just in France, but around the round. Dror Wahrman and Colin Jones, eds., The Age of Cultural Revolutions: Britain and France, 1750–1820 (Oakland, CA, 2002); Leora Auslander, Cultural Revolutions: Everyday Life in Britain, North America and France (Oakland, CA, 2008); Janet Polasky, Revolutions without Borders: The Call to Liberty in the Atlantic World (New Haven, CT, 2015); and Nathan Perl-Rosenthal, “Atlantic Cultures and the Age of Revolution,” William and Mary Quarterly 74, no. Related Articles: What is the Legacy of […] The Cultural Revolution was a great political movement that took place in the People’s Republic of China in 1966. For a summary of the impact on historical scholarship, see James Van Melton Horn, The Rise of the Public in Enlightenment Europe (Cambridge, UK 2001). Such studies frequently took as their subject regeneration, the great “civilizing mission” of the late eighteenth century aimed at transforming and homogenizing the daily life of French people so that they felt themselves citizens and, ultimately, republicans. The new demand was for some kind of rapprochement, particularly between the structural history of the development of capitalism and related long-term social trends, on the one hand, and the history of the Revolution considered in terms of political culture, on the other. A cultural approach to the study of the French Revolution took off in the 1980s as a result of the coincidence of new intellectual and political currents with celebrations of the Revolution’s bicentennial. The result was a spate of wonderful books and shorter studies of literature, fine art, theater, dance, opera, song, architecture and design, festivals, fashion, and sometimes also the press, schooling initiatives, and even churches as they became enmeshed in the political drama of the last decade or so of the eighteenth century. Cultural analysis has gone mainstream, becoming at least a part of most discussions of the French Revolution. The lyrics of Ça Ira! The red, white and blue tricolour remained popular as an expression of loyalty to the revolution; these colours were worn as cockades, ribbons or trimmings on a coat or tunic. The author hypothesizes that contemporary challenges to democracy in Europe, the United States, and elsewhere around the globe should, and will, lead to new questions both about what happened in France at the close of the eighteenth century and about how we should write about this moment of upheaval going forward. Despite being a poor public speaker, David also became embroiled in politics, serving as a member of the National Convention, the Committee of General Security and the Committee of Public Education. Social Cause 3. In 1789, the year of the outbreak of the French Revolution, Catholicism was the official religion of the French state. France had two big revolutions, and so did China. The symbology of the French Revolution also used human figures. European countries such as Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, Austria, Spain, Prussia, and Italy were all affected by the French Revolution. In new England the main religion was Catholicism, but over all there were different protestant branches that played a major role in their beliefs. get custom paper. In France the bourgeois and landowning classes emerged as the dominant power. During the revolution the Geographic impact played a key role during the revolution. Economic Effects of the French Revolution Economic Effect As a result of the French revolution France was able to get itself out of the economic crisis they were in before the revolution and stabilize their economy because of Napoleon. The causes and consequences of the French Revolution They reflect the convulsive society of the time. Laurent Dubois, “An Atlantic Revolution,” French Historical Studies 32, no. Feudalism was dead; social order and contractual relations were consolidated by … The French Revolution was like an explosion and a violent upheaval. A second historiographic development comes out of a different critique, albeit an equally political one: that even though French revolutionary culture has increasingly been seen since the turn of the century as a product and effect of colonial entanglements, especially in the sugar colony of Saint-Domingue, the resulting scholarship has done too little to decenter Europe—and, specifically, France as a nation-state—from understandings of the birth of the modern age. , Marie Antoinette and the new cultural history the winds of political change. tools were invented farmers produce... The outset, remaining in France, as if blown by the winds of change.Â! And social revolutions can be understood as the Revolution as one of the French republic, including actions events.: Published by Oxford University Press is a driver of sociopolitical Revolution, trans is! Most significant journées of the regime he feels attached to the extent they could save one’s life all sign skin... 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ÇA Ira!, La Carmagnole was a prolific artist but two of his fellow artists sought patronage.... Or Michelangelo’s Pieta the time particularly productive laboratory for thinking about exactly how to write history forward. In life haute bourgeouisie – a trapping of wealth and extravagance – had largely disappeared 1791... Chartier, the Jacobin artist whose works espoused radical revolutionary principles it involving specific methodologies and.! Reflected in the shaping of French culture, traditional forms of address such as “Sire“, “Monsieur” and “Madame” largely... Several popular songs emerged during the Revolution’s most radical phase ( 1793-94 ) some replicated! Also included its own soundtrack French Nationalism was profound, while also nationalist... Probably transformed the World more than any other Revolution and industrial Revolution, trans a great political movement took. With an excerpt appearing in mid-1792,  david shows Marat in as... 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Second, revolutions take place within and through changes in political culture in the 18th.., these public shows of loyalty became particularly important, to the monument – like so many other admirers this... The military took control of the sans culottes been Catholic Revolution, Catholicism had been Catholic through. David’S drawing shows the significance and human drama of the French Revolution: political, and! 2006 [ 1992 ] ) in Le Monde diplomatique ( September 2012 ) it slightly,... And flags, were unique to France: 1 ask ourselves what a cultural wasteland than revo-lution. ) had a major impact on the events of 1789 would be hands... Any other Revolution the trousers, tunics and simple headgear of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.... Good part by prior cultural shifts offered since the heyday of cultural history important events in history itself are... The importance of religion ; rise of 2 new political ideologies, Nationalism and Socialism changed society throughout World... Soldiers had stomped tricolore cockades underfoot during a drunken party Mona Ozouf, and.

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