caída de tenochtitlan
Though the disease also affected the Spanish-aligned forces somewhat, it had more dire consequences for the leadership on the side of the Aztecs, as they were much harder hit by the smallpox than the Spanish leaders, who were largely resistant to the disease. The Spanish forces and their allies advanced into the city. Additionally, Cortés had 20,000 warriors from Tlaxcala, Huexotzinco, and Cholula. El 13 de agosto de 1521 se dio en Tenochtitlan actual México una de los hechos más importantes de la historia de México, la conquista de los españoles al mando de Hernán Cortes. This would allow them the largest possible army that would be close to its supplies, while affording them the mobility provided by the surrounding lake. He had to wait for favorable winds, though, and was unable to send any forces until spring. , Moctezuma was soon taken hostage on November 14, 1519, as a safety measure by the vastly outnumbered Spanish. "Cortés mandó hacer un banquete en Cuyuacán por alegrías de la haber ganado. Under torture, by burning their feet with oil, Cuauhtémoc and the lord of Tacuba confessed to dumping his gold and jewels into the lake. , It is often debated why the Aztecs took little action against the Spanish and their allies after they fled the city. Cortés hurriedly quashed this faction, determined to finish what he had started. "Hernando Cortés" by Jacobs, W.J., New York, N.Y.:Franklin Watts, Inc. 1974. When they arrived at Tlacopan, a good number of Spaniards had been killed, as well as most of the indigenous warriors, and some of the horses; all of the cannons and most of the crossbows and other weapons were lost. The Tlaxcalans did not spare women or children: they entered houses, stealing all precious things they found, raping and then killing women, stabbing children. Cervantes de Salazar, Francisco. La caída de Tenochtitlan fue el clímax de diversos hechos como las alianzas logradas por Hernán Cortés y la creencia de Moctezuma Xocoyotzin, de que Quetzalcoatl había regresado para reclamar el trono mexica. ), Alberto Beltran (illus. Coming into contact with a number of polities who resented Aztec rule, Cortés claimed he has arrived on the orders of his Emperor to put things in order, abolish human sacrifices, teach the locals the true faith and "stop them from robbing each other", and was successful in enforcing excellent behaviour of his army when among potential allies. However, the Aztecs refused. When he came, the Spanish soldiers appeared scared and intimidated. [page needed], While Cortés was rebuilding his alliances and garnering more supplies, a smallpox epidemic struck the natives of the Valley of Mexico, including Tenochtitlan. He started with the Tlaxcalans. 1. Consequently, Cortés had his forces set up on the causeways at night to defend their positions. :368–69, 382–83, After capturing two chieftains, Cortés learned of another Aztec plot to ambush his launches with forty pirogues. They were driven back every time, and some of the native allies won their own victories over the Aztecs, as their dread of their invincible overlords faded with every success of Cortés. :364–66 Cortés also sent orders to "never on any account to leave a gap unblocked, and that all the horsemen were to sleep on the causeway with their horses saddled and bridled all night long. El arte en la Antigua Roma (s.VIII a.C - 476 d.C.) GENERALIDADES DE LA MEDICINA ALTERNATIVA Y LAS DISTINTAS TERAPIAS.  As Alvarado and his cavalry emerged on the other side of the gap with the infantry behind, Aztec canoes filled the gap. , Cortés needed to gain other new allies as well.  Cortés entered the palace unscathed, as the hostilities had not started yet, although the Aztecs had probably planned to ambush him. Before entering the city, on November 8, 1519, Cortés and his troops prepared themselves for battle, armoring themselves and their horses, and arranging themselves in proper military rank.  (1992). It occurred in 1521 following extensive manipulation of local factions and exploitation of pre-existing divisions by Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés, who was aided by the support of his indigenous allies and his interpreter and companion La Malinche. In this Cortés showed skill at exploiting the divisions within and between the Aztec states while hiding those of his own troops. Cortés was amicably received by Moctezuma. ), Expanded and updated edition, Boston: Beacon Press. As Cortés arrived in more densely inhabited areas east of the lake, the attacks were more forceful. [page needed], Cortés and his army were permitted to stay in the Palace of Axayacatl, and tensions continued to grow. Once Martin López and Chichimecatecle brought the logs and planks to Texcoco, the sloops were built quickly. Narváez was imprisoned in Vera Cruz, and his army was integrated into Cortés's forces. Therefore, Cortés made the decision to abruptly abduct the tlatoani; only with a knife to his throat could Cortés ensure his cooperation. The sacrifice involved the killing of a young man who had been impersonating the Toxcatl deity for a full year. Though the Spanish were under attack the entire trip, because Cortés took his troops through the northern towns, they were at an advantage. Cortés commanded the 13 sloops. Other Aztec lords were also detained by the Spanish, when they started questioning their captive tlatoani's authority. Cuauhtemoc then enlisted his allies in Matlazingo, Malinalco, and Tulapa, in attacking the Spaniards from the rear. , Though a flight from the city would make Cortés appear weak before his indigenous allies, it was this or death for the Spanish forces. The indigenous soldiers wore cotton armor and were armed with shields and crossbows; many carried provisions in baskets or bundles while others escorted the cannons on wooden carts. Cristóbal de Olea and Cristóbal de Guzmán gave their lives for Cortés, and sixty-five Spanish soldiers were captured alive. They expected the Spanish to pay for their supplies, to have the city of Cholula, an equal share of any of the spoils, the right to build a citadel in Tenochtitlan, and finally, to be exempted from any future tribute. Alvarado's camp had Chichimecatecle, the two sons of Lorenzo de Vargas, and eighty Tlaxcalans. [page needed], Heavy rains and a moonless night provided some cover for the escaping Spanish. Most scholars[who?] 13 de agosto se conmemora el día en que los españoles tomaron Tenochtitlan, luego de una lucha de tres meses entre los aztecas. Caida de Tenochtitlan Captura de Cuauhtémoc, matanza de Tlatelolco y fin de la guerra. The Spaniards gradually advanced along the causeways, though without allies. Alvarado ordered his men to shoot their cannons, crossbows and arquebuses into the gathering crowd.  Diseases like smallpox could travel great distances and spread throughout large populations, which was the case with the Aztecs having lost approximately 50% of its population from smallpox and other diseases. Cortés decided to make an opening in the causeway so that his brigantines could help defend his forces from both sides. The euphoric dancing as well as the accompanying flute and drum playing disturbed Alvarado about the potential for revolt. On the Tacuba Causeway across Lake Texcoco connecting Tenochtitlan to the mainland along a street now known as Puente de Alvarado (Alvarado's Bridge) in Mexico City, Pedro de Alvarado made a mad cavalry charge across a gap in the Causeway.  The Aztec forces managed to push back the Spanish and halt this assault on the capital with a determined and hard-fought land and naval counterattack. Cortés also received one hundred and fifty soldiers and twenty horses from the abandoned Panuco River settlement. , After the Fall of Tenochtitlan the remaining Aztec warriors and civilians fled the city as the Spanish allies, primarily the Tlaxcalans, continued to attack even after the surrender, slaughtering thousands of the remaining civilians and looting the city. Cortés was willing to promise anything in the name of the King of Spain, and agreed to their demands. to be an invention of the conquerors, and perhaps natives who wished to rationalize the actions of the Aztec tlatoani, Moctezuma II. After Cortés' forces managed to defeat the smaller armies of some Aztec tributary states, Tepeyac, and later, Yauhtepec and Cuauhnahuac were easily won over. :388–89 To maintain the advance, Cortés razed every neighborhood he captured, using the rubble to fill up canals and gaps in the causeways to allow his infantry and cavalry to advance in formation, a fighting tactic that favored the Spanish instead of engaging in hand-to-hand street fighting, which favored the Aztec. A esto hay que unir la pretensión de extender la religión católica y eliminar las creencias que consideraban paganas. The morning after, the Aztecs returned to recover the spoils from the canals. Throughout the siege, the Tlaxcalans waged a merciless campaign against the Aztecs who had long oppressed them as for a hundred years the Tlaxcalans had been forced to hand over an annual quota of young men and women to be sacrificed and eaten at the Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan, and now the Tlaxcalans saw their chance for revenge. Yet a "favorable breeze sprang up", enabling him to overturn many canoes and kill or capture many. :363, With his brigantines, Cortés could also send forces and supplies to areas he previously could not, which put a kink in Cuauhtémoc's plan. From the perspective of the tlatoani, the Spaniards might have been assigned some decisive role by fate. He had planned to attack on the causeways during the daytime and retreat to camp at night; however, the Aztecs moved in to occupy the abandoned bridges and barricades as soon as the Spanish forces left. La caída de Tenochtitlan. (Diamond 1999: 210), Diamond, Jared M. 1999 Guns, Germs, and Steel: the Fates of Human Societies. I also told the captains of our allies that on no account should any of those people be slain; but there were so many that we could not prevent more than fifteen thousand being killed and sacrificed [by the Tlaxcalans] that day". , Although some reports put the number as low as forty, the Spanish lost over 100 soldiers in the siege, while thousands of Tlaxcalans perished. The direct loss of nearly a hundred men dead and the fierce spirit of the Aztecs who refused to be cowed by his ascent of the temple convinced Cortés that a night escape was now his only option for survival. León-Portilla, Miguel (Ed.) Cortés destruyó todo lo que se encontraba a su paso, mientras de los aztecas no dejaban de batallar y defender lo suyo. As Moctezuma complied with orders issued by Cortés, such as commanding tribute to be gathered and given to the Spaniards, his authority was slipping, and quickly his people began to turn against him.  One source claims 6,000 were massacred in the town of Ixtapalapa alone. , Throughout the battles with the Spanish, the Aztecs still practiced the traditional ceremonies and customs. Cortés had been communicating to the crown that he had the entire situation under control and was practically running the city of Tenochtitlan. The Aztecs were cut off from the mainland because of the occupied causeways. Thus, prohibiting human sacrifice during this festival was an untenable proposition for the Aztecs. The disease was probably carried by a Spanish slave from Narváez's forces, who had been abandoned in the capital during the Spanish flight. :396, As the Spanish employed more successful strategies, their stranglehold on Tenochtitlan tightened, and famine began to affect the Aztecs. The women survivors included Cortés's translator and lover La Malinche, María Estrada, Beatriz de Palacios, and two of Moctezuma's daughters who had been given to Cortés, including the emperor's favorite and reportedly most beautiful daughter Tecuichpotzin (later Doña Isabel Moctezuma). His new followers were greatly disturbed at the power of the Aztecs, and held Cortés to be a liar since nobody revered them and brought them food and gifts as Cortés had promised. Clic en la imagen para ver la galería. Cortés followed this tactic when he and his men established the city of Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz, also known as Veracruz, seven miles from the harbour of San Juan de Ulúa. However, one faction of Tetzcocan warriors remained loyal to the Aztecs. They honored this god during the onset of the dry season so that the god would fill dry streambeds and cause rain to fall on crops. Ubicada en la Plaza de las Tres Culturas, en el corazón mismo de Tlatelolco, en el Distrito Federal, la placa no deja lugar a dudas ni espacio para el olvido. , 100,000 to 240,000 were killed in the campaign overall including warriors and civilians. Días previos al encuentro los mexicas colocaron estacas debajo del agua para que así bloquearan la zona e impedir que se acercaran los españoles, también hicieron bloqueos por tierra. Al llegar a Tlaxcala se impone militarmente a los tlaxcaltecas y … 1520: Julio 7 - La Batalla de Otumba. "Hernando Cortés" by Fisher, M. & Richardson K. "Hernando Cortés" Crossroads Resource Online. Three stones hit him, one of them on the head, so cerebral hematoma is possible. It is estimated that around 1,800 Spaniards died from all causes during the two-year campaign—from Vera Cruz to Tenochtitlan. :311–16, After winning over Chalco and Tlamanalco, Cortés sent eight Mexican prisoners to Cuauhtemoc stating, "all the towns in the neighborhood were now on our side, as well as the Tlaxcalans". These emissaries brought golden jewelry as a gift, which greatly pleased the Spaniards. Two thousand warriors returned from Texcoco, as did many Tlaxcan warriors under Tepaneca from Topeyanco, and those from Huejotzingo and Cholula. Not only had he staked everything he had or could borrow on this enterprise, he had completely compromised himself by defying his superior Velázquez. 12, f.6r., Moctezuma also ordered that his messengers carry the highly symbolic penacho (headdress) of Quetzalcoatl de Tula to Cortés and place it on his person. 2006 The Broken Spears: the Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico. La Caída de México-Tenochtitlan (1521), la capital del Imperio Mexica, llevada a cabo mediante la manipulación de facciones locales y de las divisiones existentes por el conquistador español Hernán Cortés. The Aztecs intended to cut short the Spanish retreat from Tenochtitlan and annihilate them.  Cuauhtémoc attempted to flee with his property, gold, jewels, and family in fifty pirogues, but was soon captured by Sandoval's launches, and brought before Cortés. Como paradoja de su historia, el pueblo del sol nació con el agua y en ella se desvaneció. , The flight of the Spanish from Tenochtitlan was a crushing defeat for Cortés that was just short of annihilation. Joseph, Gilbert M. and Henderson, Timothy J. Duke University Press, 2002. [page needed] The Spanish finally found refuge in Otancalpolco, where they were aided by the Teocalhueyacans. Caida de Tenochtitlan: Fin del imperio Mexica Alianza de Cortés con los Totonacas. Alvarado's company made it there first, and Gutierrez de Badajoz advanced to the top of the Huichilopotzli cu, setting it afire and planting their Spanish banners. Any Spanish assault would have to come through the causeways, where the Aztecs could easily attack them. The Aztecs had fought for the lake cities many times before and their tactics were excellent - the use of canoes, the use of flat roofs with prepared missiles, dropping down into the lake when cornered, and destroying bridges. Caída de Tenochtitlan (1521). "The World's Greatest Explorers: Hernando Cortés." , Moctezuma sent a group of noblemen and other emissaries to meet Cortés at Quauhtechcac. Se el primero en opinar. :401–03, The Aztec forces were destroyed and the Aztecs surrendered on 13 August 1521, Julian Date. [page needed], Despite the overwhelming numbers of Aztecs and the generally poor condition of the Spanish survivors, Cortés snatched victory from the jaws of defeat. Therefore, they brutally crushed any tributaries who tried to send help to Tenochtitlan. It was known to them as the huey ahuizotl (great rash).  A few days after the great forces of Cortés got into Tenochtitlan, the roads were shut and the causeway bridges were raised. With this mindset, Cortés launched an attack directly at the chief temple of the city, the Cue of Huichilopotzli. , Cortés attempted to parlay with the Aztecs, and after this failed he sent Moctezuma to tell his people to stop fighting. Visión de los Vencidos contiene la descripción de la conquista de México y caída de Tenochtitlan desde el punto de vista de los supervivientes. , Cuauhtemoc then attacked all three Spanish camps simultaneously with his entire army on the feast day of St. John. The conquest of Mexico was a critical stage in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. :347–49, Returning to Texcoco, which had been guarded by his Captain Gonzalo de Sandoval, Cortés was joined by many more men from Castile. Unable to assert control over events, he sequestered Moctezuma and increased the guards around the tlatoani. Hernán Cortés deja a cargo México-Tenochtitlán a Pedro de Alvarado, ya que el tiene que ir a confrontar a Pánfilo de Narváez. Though Cuauhtémoc organized a large-scale attack on Alvarado's forces at Tlacopan, the Aztec forces were pushed back. Cortés' and Sandoval's men were able to join them there after four more days of fighting.:396–98. Thus Cortés had to fight for his survival as a leader while still in Cuba; twice messengers from Velázquez arrived to depose him, and twice they were spoken to with honeyed words and dissuaded from executing their mission. :340–47 Cortés found Coyoacan, Tacuba, Atzcapotzalco, and Cuauhitlan deserted. [page needed][page needed], Even the former Triple Alliance member city of Tetzcoco (or Texcoco) became a Spanish ally. They feared a "snowball effect": if one tributary left, others might follow. So he argued, cajoled, bullied, and coerced his troops, and they began preparing for the siege of Mexico. The famine was so severe that the Aztecs ate anything, even wood, leather, and bricks for sustenance. The Fall of Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec Empire, was a decisive event in the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire. The result either preempted or triggered the Aztec revolt, which was, however, inevitable from the moment of Moctezuma's capture and was accelerated by the split of the Spanish forces.  Other sources estimate that around 860 Spanish soldiers and 20,000 Tlaxcalan warriors were killed during all the battles in this region from 1519–1521. The captive woman Malinalli Tenépal, also known as Doña Marina, translated from Nahuatl to Chontal Maya; the Spaniard Gerónimo de Aguilar translated from Chontal Maya to Spanish. [page needed]. Tras la caída de la capital mexica, los tlaxcaltecas seguirían apoyando a los españoles en la conquista de otros territorios, especialmente hacia el norte de lo que, siglos después, sería llamado México. The Spanish allies in the cities surrounding the lake lost many lives or "went home wounded", and "half their canoes were destroyed".  At the end of each day, the Spanish gave a prayer: "Oh, thanks be to God that they did not carry me off today to be sacrificed. Davis, Paul K. (2003). ", Cortés then decided to push forward a simultaneous attack towards the Mexican market square. The military gains of the attack therefore had a serious political cost for Cortés. Despite inflicting heavy casualties, the Aztecs could not halt the Spanish advance. Cortés then completed winning over Narváez's captains with promises of the vast wealth in Tenochtitlan, inducing them to follow him back to the Aztec capital. Yet, little gold remained, as earlier, a fifth had been sent to Spain and another kept by Cortés. El 13 de agosto de 1521, tras deliberar con su Consejo, Cuauhtémoc decide rendirse a los españoles con el fin de evitar más sufrimientos. The Fall of Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec Empire, was a decisive event in the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire.  On that "Sad Night," July 1, 1520, the Spanish forces exited the palace first with their indigenous allies close behind, bringing as much treasure as possible. The Tlaxcalans could have crushed the Spaniards at this point or turned them over to the Aztecs. [page needed], It was at this event where firsthand accounts were recorded in the Florentine Codex concerning the adverse effects of the smallpox epidemic of the Aztecs, which stated, "many died from this plague, and many others died of hunger. 2006 The Broken Spears: the Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico. After this move, the Aztecs could no longer attack from their canoes on the opposite side of the Spanish brigantines, and "the fighting went very much in our favour", according to Díaz. However, Cortés sent Andrés de Tapia, with 20 horsemen and 100 soldiers, and Gonzalo de Sandoval, with 20 horsemen and 80 soldiers, to help his allies attack this new threat. In fact, the Aztecs sent emissaries promising peace and prosperity if they would do just that. He was supplied with darts sacred to Huitzilopochtli, which came with wooden tips and flint tops. Levy, Buddy, Conquistador: Hernan Cortes, King Montezuma, and the Last Stands of the Aztecs, (New York: Bantam Books, 2008), 166. Caída de Tenochtitlan (Foto: Wiki Commons) Cuando los españoles intentaron retirarse ya era demasiado tarde. , Cortés failed to grasp the full extent of the situation, as the attack on the festival was the last straw for the Aztecs, who now were completely against Moctezuma and the Spanish. They had never seen them used in open battle on the plains.  The American historian Charles Robinson wrote: "Centuries of hate and the basic viciousness of Mesoamerican warfare combined in violence that appalled Cortés himself". La caída de Tenochtitlan no significo la conquista española, la resistencia de los indígenas se mantuvo durante vaios siglos. 1492 Cristóbal colon llega a América 1502 Moctezuma huei tlatoani 1503 Américo Vespucio afirma que las tierra descubiertas por colon son parte de un nuevo Muchas batallas existieron entre los ejércitos azteca y español, aquel compuesto mayoritariamente por indígenas. Underestimation of the Aztecs. The Aztecs changed tactics as often as the Spanish did, preventing Cortés's forces from being entirely victorious. , It was necessary for Cortés to rebuild his alliances after his escape from Tenochtitlan before he could try again to take the city. The Aztecs had already stopped sending food and supplies to the Spaniards. :359 There were springs there that supplied much of the city's water by aqueduct; the rest of the city's water was brought in by canoe.  The disease killed an estimated forty percent of the native population in the area within a year. Trajeron consigo una nueva y diferente cosmovisión, el cristianismo e iniciaron el proceso de […] Sabedor ahora de que los puentes de Tenochtitlan le suponían un terreno densamente desventajoso, Cortés ordenó la construcción de trece bergantines que le servirían para controlar los lagos circundantes. In addition, Cortés replaced kings with those who he knew would be loyal to him. Alvarado had sixty of his men as well as many of his Tlaxcalan allies into positions around the patio. La caída de Tenochtitlan Una de las primeras estrategias que aplicó Cortés fue la de cortar el agua que surtía del líquido a Tenochtitlan. The Spanish received a large amount of supplies from Vera Cruz, and, somewhat renewed, finally entered the main part of Tenochtitlan. His numerically inferior force finally triumphed when the minds of Tlaxcalans opened up to consideration of his ceaseless offers of peace, notably Xicotencatl the Elder and his wish to form an alliance with the Spaniards against the Aztecs which was the proffered aim of Cortés as well. Cortés was ready to start the blockade of Mexico after Corpus Christi (feast). Cortés fought the Tabascans, the Cempoalans, the Tlaxcalans and found them strong opponents, but always prevailed. The Spanish authorities would later disown this treaty with the Tlaxcalans after the fall of Tenochtitlan. It is still remembered as "La Noche Triste," The Night of Sorrows. He spotted the Aztec commander in his ornate and colourful feather tlahuiztli and immediately charged him with several horsemen, killing the Aztec commander and most other leaders as they were clearly marked by their golden plumage and an easy target for a charge. , The Aztec continued to attack the Spaniards on the causeways, "day and night". The newly-arrived Narvaéz's men did not have experience in local fighting and were worth much less in combat - and eventually perished in much greater numbers than the veterans. Cortés aimed at routing the Aztecs and by holding both Moctezuma and the great temple - being able to offer peace once again. :364, Cortés was forced to adapt his plans again, as his initial land campaigns were ineffective. R.C., Illinois: chicago Press Inc. 1991 Choices '' Camilla Townsend University new... Tributary left, others by road to Nonchualco then Tlacopan to cut short the forces! 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