archetypal criticism by northrop frye
Literaature Of the different approaches of literary criticism, Northrop Frye has established the validity of the archetypal approach and its relevance in the elucidation of a text. LITERATURE AT ALBERTS: NORTHROP FRYE: THE ARCHETYPES OF LITERATURE. Sea/ocean: the mother of all life; spiritual mystery; death and/or rebirth; timelessness and eternity. Anatomy of Criticism: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anatomy_of_Criticism, General Interest As for Jung, Frye was uninterested about the collective unconscious on the grounds of feeling it was unnecessary: since the unconscious is unknowable it cannot be studied. 1445 - 1457 Of the different approaches of literary criticism, Northrop Frye has established the validity of the archetypal approach and its relevance in the elucidation of a text. Ironically, as in the feminist revisioning of explicitly male-biased Jungian theory, the rise in the 1980s of Reader-response theory and criticism and the impetus for canon revision have begun to contribute to a revaluation of Jung as a source of literary study. Example: Edna learns to swim in Kate Chopin's "The Awakening". In the 2010s, archetypal literary criticism is no longer widely practiced; there have not been any major recent developments in the field (with the possible exception of biblical literary criticism), but it still has a place in the tradition of literary studies. In literary criticism the term archetype denotes recurrent narratives designs, patterns of action, character-types, themes, and images which are identifiable in a wide variety of works of literature, as well as in myths, dreams, and even social rituals. In Re-Visioning Psychology, the published text of his 1972 Yale Terry Lectures (the same lecture series Jung gave in 1937), Hillman locates the archetypal neither “in the physiology of the brain, the structure of language, the organization of society, nor the analysis of behavior, but in the processes of imagination” (xi). ( Pandavs, Ram-Sita-laxman, Sugreve, Duke, Orlando, Rosalind in As You Like It, tramps in Godot, …) Athurian Legends, , bring Helen back to Troy, Kurukshetra’s battle for Arjun, Savitri…) While acknowledging the grave weaknesses of much Jungian writing on literature as “unsubtle and rigid application of preconceived psychological notions and schemes” resulting in “particularly ill-judged or distorted readings,” van Meurs still finds that “sensitively, flexibly and cautiously used, Jungian psychological theory may stimulate illuminating literary interpretations” (14-15). What are the sources of its origin? 1442 - 1445 We cannot learn literature. Creation: All cultures believe the Cosmos was brought into existence by some Supernatural Being (or Beings). Art and literature is the subject of study and criticism is study itself; study of literature. Northrop Frye, Simulation, and the Creation of a "Human World": http://www.transparencynow.com/introfry2.htm. Fast and free shipping free returns cash on delivery available on eligible purchase. An even more important antecedent was the depth psychology of Carl G. Jung(1875-1961), who applied the term “archetype” to what he called “primordial images”, the “psychic residue” of repeated patterns of experience in our very ancient ancestors which, he maintained, survive in the “collective unconscious” of the human race and are expressed in yths, religion, dreams, and private fantasies, as well as in works of literature. wolves). Colors: Northrop Frye Collection, Victoria University Library: http://library.vicu.utoronto.ca/special/fryeintro.htm Myth criticism grew in part as a reaction to the formalism of New Criticism, while archetypal criticism based on Jung was never linked with any academic tradition and remained organically bound to its roots in depth psychology: the individual and collective psyche, dreams, and the analytic process. The first systematic application of Jung’s ideas to literature was made in 1934 by Maud Bodkin in Archetypal Patterns in Poetry: “An attempt is here made to bring psychological analysis and reflection to bear upon the imaginative experience communicated by great poetry, and to examine those forms or patterns in which the universal forces of our nature there find objectification” (vii). This is my presentations of Symbolism in Archetypal criticism of Northrop Frye. Ed. A few names form a core of writers in English (including many Canadians)âMartin Bickman, Albert Gelpi, Elliott Gose, Evelyn Hinz, Henry Murray, Barton L. St. Armand, Harold Schechter, and William Steinâ though no single figure has attracted the attention of academic literary specialists, and no persistent commonalities fuse into a recognizable school critics who draw on Jung’s theories. • Animals in the comedic genres are docile and pastoral (e.g. 5. But in fact, arguments about generic blends such as tragicomedy go back to the Renaissance, and Frye always conceived of genres as fluid. Winter - without life/death; genre/irony. What is Northrop Frye’s contribution to the archetypal criticism? Each season is aligned with a literary genre: comedy with spring, romance with summer, tragedy with autumn, and satire with winter. • Lastly, the water realm is represented by rivers in the comedic. (Available in the UHS Library), The Northrop Frye International Literary Festival: http://www.northropfrye.com/home.htm "Introduction." Example: Frodo's task to keep the ring safe in J. R. R. Tolkein's "The Lord of the Rings" trilogy. . Eve from the story of Genesis or Pandora from Greek mythology are two such figures. Further, myth critics, aligned with writers in comparative anthropology and philosophy, are said to include Frazer, Jessie Weston, Leslie Fiedler, Ernst Cassirer, Claude LÃ©vi-Strauss, Richard Chase, Joseph Campbell, Philip Wheelwright, and Francis Fergusson. Home › Archetypal Criticism › Archetypal Criticism, By Nasrullah Mambrol on October 22, 2020 • ( 0 ). [Tom Jones, Darcy in P&P (breaking of Lizzy’s sis’s relationship, elopement), Technology in BNW, Tess for death of Prince, giving birth to Sorrow, …] Toril Moi, trans. Indeed, myth criticism seems singularly unaffected by any of the archetypal theorists who have remained faithful to the origins and traditions of depth, especially analytical, psychologyâJames Hillman, Henri Corbin, Gilbert Durand, Rafael Lopez-Pedraza, Evangelos Christou. According to this argument the dilemma Frye’s archetypal criticism faces with more contemporary literature, and that of post-modernism in general, is that genres and categories are no longer distinctly separate and that the very concept of genres has become blurred, thus problematizing Frye’s schema. The star-crossed lovers - This is the young couple joined by love but unexpectedly parted by fate. • Frye, Northrop. Among the other archetypal themes, images and characters frequently traced in literature were the journey underground, the heavenly ascent, the search, the Paradise/Hades dichotomy, the Promethean rebel-hero, the scapegoat, the earth goddess, and the fatal woman. The outcast - The outcast is just that. Example: Val's loss of innocence after settling down at the mercantile store in Tennessee William's "Orpheus Descending". Romeo and Juliet, the ill-fated ("star-crossed") lovers; 1: 67), of the “archetypes,” which he described as patterns of psychic energy originating in the collective unconscious and finding their “most common and most normal” manifestation in dreams (8:287). Bettina Knapp’s 1984 effort at an authoritative demonstration of archetypal literary criticism exemplified this pattern. The quintessential journey archetype in Western culture is arguably Homer’s Odyssey The example he cites are islands such as Circe ’s or Prospero’s which cannot be categorized under the tragic or comedic. Such recurrent items are held to be the result of elemental and universal forms or patterns in the human psyche, whose effective embodiment in a literary work evokes a profound response from the attentive reader, because he or she shares the psychic archetypes expressed by the author. Jung’s Psychology of the Unconscious (1916, B. M. Hinkle’s translation of the 1911-12 Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido) appeared in English one year after publication of the concluding volume with bibliography of the third edition of J. G. Frazer’s The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion (2 vols., 1890,3d ed., 12 vols., 1911-15). Ed. What types of archetypal themes, images and characters are traced in literature by them? The major work of Frye’s to deal with archetypes is Anatomy of Criticism but his essay The Archetypes of Literature is a precursor to the book. (Diagram of his wheel in Anatomy of Criticism ), Archetypes fall into two major categories: characters, situations/symbols. Other forms previously labeled “Jungian” are here subsumed under the term “archetypal” because whatever their immediate specific focus, these forms operate on a set of assumptions derived from Jung and accept the depth-psychological structure posited by Jung. Introduction Northrop Frye, working in the field of literature, defined an archetype as a symbol, usually an image, which recurs often enough in literature to be recognizable as an element of one’s literary experience as a whole. Rising sun: birth, creation, enlightenment. Ed. (m – 07) (O-07). Archetypal criticism, then, construed as that derived from Jung’s theory and practice of archetypal (analytical) psychology, is a fledgling and much misconstrued field of inquiry with significant but still unrealized potential for the study of literature and of aesthetics in general. Certainly criticism as we find it in learned journals and scholarly This page was last modified on 17 June 2009, at 00:21. He notes that Singer’s Unholy Bible: A Psychological Interpretation of William Blake (1970), though oversimplified in its psychobiographical approach and its treatment of characters as psychological projections of the author, does make original use in a literary context of such Jungian techniques of dream interpretation as “amplification” and of such fantasy-evoking procedures as “active imagination.”. The term “archetype” can be traced to Plato (arche, “original”; typos, “form”), but the concept gained currency in twentieth-century literary theory and criticism through the work of the Swiss founder of analytical psychology, C. G. Jung (1875-1961). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994. Sciences like Physics and Chemistry can be learned. 2. http://users.cdc.net/~stifler/en111/archetype.html. Tree: denotes life of the cosmos; growth; proliferation; symbol of immortality; phallic symbol. plot forms, or organizing structural principles), correspondent to the four seasons in the cycle of the natural world, are incorporated in the four major genres of comedy (spring), romance (summer), tragedy (autumn), and satire (winter). Richard II, the hero who dies with honor; and many others. Jung on Mythology. This last text explicitly named the movement and demonstrated its appropriation of archetypal theory for feminist ends in aesthetics, analysis, art, and religion, as well as in literature. Frye’s work helped displace New Criticism as the major mode of analyzing literary texts, before giving way to structuralism and semiotics . Setting sun: death. This article, then, treats the only form of literary theory and criticism consistent with and derived directly from the psychological principles advanced by Jung. Like works of literature, criticism is also creative and an archetypal critic discovers the meaning of a text and the motives of a character. Although Shakespeare based many of his characters on existing archetypes from fables and myths (e.g., Romeo and Juliet on Pyramus and Thisbe), Shakespeare's characters stand out as original by their contrast against a complex, social literary landscape. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! Where is archetypal literary criticism manifested? • Leitch, Vincent B. Thus criticism evolving from his work is more accurately named “archetypal” and is quite distinct from “myth” criticism. Given this background, it is not surprising to find in a 1976 essay entitled “Jungian Psychology in Criticism: Theoretical Problems” the statement that “no purely Jungian criticism of literature has yet appeared” (Baird 22). Example: Simon from William Golding's "The Lord of the Flies". Desert: spiritual aridity; death; hopelessness. Northrop Frye rose to international prominence with the publication ofAnatomy of Criticism, in 1957 and it firmly established him as one of the most brilliant, original and influential of modern critics. • -- "Carl Gustav Jung." These critics tended to emphasize the occurrence of mythical patterns in literature, on the assumption that myths are closer t the elemental archetype than the artful manipulation of sophisticated writers. The Norton Anthology: Theory and Criticism. For instance Beckett’s Waiting For Godot is considered a tragicomedy, a play with elements of tragedy and satire, with the implication that interpreting textual elements in the play becomes difficult as the two opposing seasons and conventions that Frye associated with genres are pitted against each other. Example: Snowball from George Orwell's "Animal Farm". “In literary criticism the term archetype denotes recurrent narratives designs, patterns of action, character-types, themes, and images which are identifiable in a wide variety of works of literature.” Elucidate with N.Frye’s views in his essay Archetype of Literature. For instance, in The Tempest, Shakespeare borrowed from a manuscript by William Strachey that detailed an actual shipwreck of the Virginia-bound 17th-century English sailing vessel Sea Venture in 1609 on the islands of Bermuda. ARCHETYPES OF LITERATURE-- NORTHROP FRYE--Criticism & Theory ARCHETYPES OF LTERATURE. http://users.cdc.net/~stifler/en111/archetype.html, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archetypal_literary_criticism, http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/litlinks/critical/frye.htm, http://www.litencyc.com/php/speople.php?rec=true&UID=1648, http://library.vicu.utoronto.ca/special/fryeintro.htm, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northrop_Frye, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anatomy_of_Criticism, http://www.transparencynow.com/introfry2.htm, https://wikieducator.org/index.php?title=Northrop_frye_archetypal_criticism&oldid=385571, Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike License. Hamlet, the self-doubting hero and the initiation archetype with the three stages of separation, transformation, and return; Further, the text offered confirmation (and poetic representation) of the only direct contribution Jung made to literary theory: a distinction between “psychological” and “visionary” texts (Collected 15:89-90). An important antecedent f the literary theory of the archetype was the treatment of myth by a group of comparative anthropologists at Cambridge University, especially James G. Frazer, whose The Golden Bough (1890-1915) identified elemental patterns of myth and ritual that , claimed, recur in the legends and ceremonials of diverse and far-flung cultures ad religions. In his Anatomy of Criticism Frye explained his particular brand of literary criticism by building a structure based on the established approaches to interpreting the Bible. Situations/symbols: Archetypal Criticism – Northrop Frye Summary. (If winter has come, can spring be far behind?) The hero - The courageous figure, the one who's always running in and saving the day. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. 6. But Wheelwright, for example, barely mentions Jung (The Burning Fountain, 1954), and he, Fergusson, and others often owe more to Sigmund Freud, Ernest Jones, Oedipus Rex, and the Oedipus complex than to anything taken from Jung. NORTHROP FRYE Archetypes of Literature: The 4 Seasons The archetypes are symbols that re-occur in literature. 2. Femme Fatale : A female character type who brings upon catastrophic and disastrous events. Northrop Frye, The Literary Encyclopedia: http://www.litencyc.com/php/speople.php?rec=true&UID=1648 Falstaff, the bawdy, rotund comic knight; Discuss.  Archetypal criticism peaked in popularity in the 1940s and 1950s, largely due to the work of Canadian literary critic Northrop Frye (1912-1991). Example: Christian's quest for salvation in John Bunyan's "The Pilgrim's Progress". Have with You to Madison Avenue or The Flush-Profile of Literature by Marshall McLuhan [Review of Northrop Frye’s 1957 Anatomy of Criticism] 1 It is natural for the literary man to underestimate the relevance of Professor Frye’s archetypal approach to literature. The scapegoat - The scapegoat figure is the one who gets blamed for everything, regardless of whether he or she is actually at fault. A Jungian Approach to Literature. From the theorists, dissertations, articles, and books, often traditionally academic in orientation, appeared; the productions of the practitioners are chronicled and critiqued in van Meurs’s bibliography. Van Meurs’s bibliography conveys the great variety of Jungian writings on literature even within one language, the increasingly recognized potential for further development and use of Jung’s ideas, and the growth in numbers of literary scholars falling under the influence of Jung. It has been argued that Frye’s version of archetypal criticism strictly categorizes works based on their genres, which determines how an archetype is to be interpreted in a text. And the 1980s saw a new, suggestive, and controversial direction in archetypal studies of literature: the feminist. New York: Garland Publishing, 1995. • Cities, temples, or precious stones represent the comedic mineral realm. • He says literature is not reflection of life not expression of personality. Martin's: http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/litlinks/critical/frye.htm "The Archetypes of Literature." For Frye, this "new poetics" is to be found in the principle of the mythological framework, which has come to be known as 'archetypal criticism'. Vincent B. Leitch. Wate r: birth-death-resurrection; creation; purification and redemption; fertility and growth. [Katherina in Taming of Shrew, Paul’s mother in S&L, Lizzy’s mother in P&P. Spring: A Journal of Archetype and Culture, Spring: An Annual of Archetypal Psychology and Jungian Thought, The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion, Cleanth Brooks' Concept of Language of Paradox, Analysis of T.S. • Comedy is aligned with spring because the genre of comedy is characterized by the birth of the hero, revival and resurrection. Carl Jung’s Contribution to Psychoanalytic Theory. At mid-century, Canadian critic Northrop Frye (1912-91) introduced new distinctions in literary criticism between myth and archetype. Frye, then, first misinterprets Jungian theory by insisting on a Lamarckian view of genetic transmission of archetypes, which Jung explicitly rejected, and later settles on a concept of “archetype” as a literary occurrence per se, an exclusively intertextual recurring phenomenon resembling a convention (99). The Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory and Criticism. Many fell prey to Jung’s idiosyncrasies as a reader, ranging widely and naively over genres, periods, and languages in search of the universal archetypes, while sweeping aside cultureand text-specific problems, ignoring their own role in the act of reading and basing critical evaluation solely on a text’s contribution to the advancement of the reader’s individuation process, a kind of literature-astherapy standard. Within the overarching archetypal mythos of each of these genres, individual works of literature also play variations upon a number of more limited archetypes – that is, conventional patterns and types that literature shares with social rituals as well a with theology, history, law, and , in fact, all “discursive verbal structures.” Viewed arhetypally, Frye asserted, literature turns out to play an essential role in refashioning the impersonal material universe into an alternative verbal universe that is intelligible ad viable, because it is adapted to universal human needs and concerns. “Frye proposed that the totality of literary woks constitute a “self-contained literary universe” “. • The loss of innocence - This is, as the name implies, a loss of innocence through sexual experience, violence, or any other means. Green: growth, hope, fertility. 1. Fort Worth: HBJ, 1993. • Abrams, M. H. "Archetypal Criticism." Dancing, riding, or flying: symbols of sexual pleasure. • The quest - Here, the character(s) are searching for something, whether consciously or unconsciously. Eliotâs Tradition and the Individual Talent, NTA UGC NET English June 2020 Questions and Answers. "Northrop Frye." What are the examples of archetypes in literature? Source: Groden, Michael, and Martin Kreiswirth. Their actions, thoughts, and feelings center around the goal of completing this quest. Two publishing events at the beginning of the 1990s in the United States may signal the coming of age of this kind of archetypal criticism through its convergence with postmodern critical thought, along with a commensurate insistence on its roots in the depth psychology of Jung: the reissue of Morris Philipson’s 1963 Outline of a Jungian Aesthetic and the appearance of Karin Barnaby and Pellegrino D’Acerino’s multidisciplinary, multicultural collection of essays, C. G. Jung and the Humanities: Toward a Hermeneutics of Culture. 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( the Holy Trinity ) ; the flowing of time into eternity ; phases. Be was also of no concern to Frye ; rather, the seas, and Martin Kreiswirth discovers basic pattern... Do contemporary critics view Frye ’ s 1984 effort at an authoritative demonstration archetypal. Her husband with verbal abuse, with their motifs being predominantly rooted in.. ’ s archetypal Criticism of Northrop Frye ’ s framework, i.e., comedic and tragic or image is be... Flowing of time into eternity ; transitional phases of the Canadian literary critic Northrop Frye would later ensure archetypal! Etc. snakes, knives, swords, etc. joined by love but unexpectedly parted by fate is disillusioned! Kate Chopin 's `` the Lord of the hero - the courageous figure, the realm... Notifications of new posts by email life not expression of personality the saw. Spring symbolizes the defeat of the Flies '' 's quest for salvation in John Bunyan 's `` the 's... 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