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By around 1400 CE several small empires had formed in the Valley of Mexico and dominant amongst these were Texcoco, capital of the Acholhua region, and Azcapotzalco, capital of the Tepenec. An Aztec poem rhetorically asked “Who could conquer Tenochtitlan? In any case, they apparently had no problems in adding the Christian "Dios" (God in Spanish), the lord of the heavens, to their already complex pantheon of gods. "During the Conquest, Spaniards legally enslaved large numbers of natives – men, women and children – as booty of warfare, branding each individual on the cheek." Which connected the millions of people living in the Inca Empire? Córdoba took two prisoners, who adopted the baptized names of Melchor and Julián and became interpreters. [73] Another witness, Vázquez de Tapia, claimed the death toll was as high as 30,000. It is said that Cortés, upon reaching the mainland at Tlacopan, wept over their losses. Early June – Cortes establishes the colony of Villa Rica de la Veracruz and relocates the company to a beach near the settlement of Quiahuiztlan. Archived from the original on 2012-10-08. The Otomi initially, and then the Tlaxcalans, fought the Spanish in a series of three battles from 2 to 5 September 1519, and at one point Diaz remarked, "they surrounded us on every side". A popular and enduring narrative of the Spanish campaign in central Mexico is by New England-born nineteenth-century historian William Hickling Prescott. With no military end to the conflict in sight, he was determined to restore peace to that region and launched a full-scale peace offensive by negotiating with Chichimeca leaders and providing them with lands, agricultural supplies, and other goods. [53] Because the Spaniards arrived in 1519, Moctezuma knew this was the year of Ce Acatl, which is the year Quetzalcoatl was promised to return. The aftermath of the Spanish conquest, including the Aztecs' struggle to preserve their cultural identity, is the subject of the Mexican feature film, The Other Conquest, directed by Salvador Carrasco. However, it appears that Cortés perceived Cholula more as a military threat to his rear guard than a religious center, as he marched to Tenochtitlan. [47]:114, Hearing of the rebellion, more ambassadors from the Aztec Emperor returned to see Cortés, bearing gifts of "gold and cloth", in thankfulness for Cortés freeing his tax collectors. The empire had been composed of separate city-states that had either allied with or been conquered by the Mexica of Tenochtitlan, and rendered tribute to the Mexica while maintaining their internal ruling structures. The Rise and Fall of the Aztec Civilization The Rise and fall of the Aztec Empire is possibly the most important area of study in the modern world. The Rise and Fall of the Aztec Civilization Essay 559 Words | 3 Pages. When news reached Cortés of the death of several of his men during the Aztec attack on the Totonacs in Veracruz, Cortes claims that he took Motecuhzoma captive. The fall of Tenochtitlan marks the beginning of Spanish rule in central Mexico, and they established their capital of Mexico City on the ruins of Tenochtitlan. The Fall of the Aztec empire occured when the a small group of conquistadors led by Cortés reached Mexico in 1519. [47]:143–55, 171, The Tlaxcalans' main city was Tlaxcala. Totonacapan A number of lower rank Spanish conquerors wrote benemérito petitions to the Spanish Crown, requesting rewards for their services in the conquest, including Juan Díaz, Andrés de Tapia, García del Pilar, and Fray Francisco de Aguilar. "[78], A fragment of the greetings of Moctezuma says: "My lord, you have become fatigued, you have become tired: to the land you have arrived. Later accounts were written in the native tongue of the Aztec and other native peoples of central Mexico, Nahuatl. "[47]:223, While in the Axayacatl palace, the conquistadors discovered the secret room where Moctezuma kept the treasure he had inherited from his father. Hernán Cortés is voiced by Jim Cummings. Cortés made alliances with tributary city-states (altepetl) of the Aztec Empire as well as their political rivals, particularly the Tlaxcalteca and Texcocans, a former partner in the Aztec Triple Alliance. [47]:96, 166, Men still loyal to the governor of Cuba planned to seize a ship and escape to Cuba, but Cortés moved swiftly to squash their plans. It has been estimated that during that period, only a handful of cities could matc… The other discovery that perpetuated this system of indigenous forced labor were the extensive silver mines discovered at Potosi, in Higher Peru (now Bolivia) and other places in the Spanish empire in the New World that were worked for hundreds of years by forced native labor and contributed most of the wealth that flowed to Spain. "Spaniards Attack Cholulans From Díaz del Castillo, Vol. A series of evil omens had foretold of calamities to come. [35], The chronicle of the so-called "Anonymous Conqueror" was written sometime in the sixteenth century, entitled in an early twentieth-century translation to English as Narrative of Some Things of New Spain and of the Great City of Temestitan (i.e. According to the chronicles of the Tlaxcalteca, the priests of Cholula expected to use the power of Quetzalcoatl, their primary god, against the invaders. Velázquez may have personally contributed nearly half the cost of the expedition. His History of the Conquest of Mexico, first published in 1843, remains an important unified narrative synthesis of the conquest. The bridge was later called "Alvarado's Leap". In other words, I would like to find out the reasons for the fall of the Aztec empire. [47]:309–11, Cortés sent Diego de Ordaz, and the remnants of Navarez's men, on a ship to Spain, and Francisco Montejo on a ship to Santo Domingo to represent his case in the Royal Courts. First, killing thousands of people, whether you or your neighbours, simply can't be good for a society. In converting people to Catholicism, the Spanish pushed for a switch from teonanácatl to the Catholic sacrament of the Eucharist. In fact, "Cortes owned several hundred, used mainly in gold placering." Maxixcatzin, Xicotencatl the Elder and Chichimecatecle told Cortés's men: "Consider yourselves at home. Thus, as the preparations for departure drew to a close, the governor became suspicious that Cortés would be disloyal to him and try to commandeer the expedition for his own purposes,[59] namely to establish himself as governor of the colony, independent of Velázquez's control. The conquest was well documented by a variety of sources with differing points of view, including indigenous accounts, by both allies and opponents. [47]:299–300, 306, The channel is now a street in Mexico City, called "Puente de Alvarado" (Alvarado's Bridge), because it seemed Alvarado escaped across an invisible bridge. The Spanish conquerors in Mexico during the early colonial era lived off the labor of the indigenous peoples. These two accounts are full-blown narratives from the viewpoint of the Spanish opponents. In 1545, an unknown disease struck the Aztec Empire. New Spain This resulted in a strange arrangement where both Cortés and Tangáxuan considered themselves rulers of Michoacán for the following years: the population of the area paid tribute to them both. [10] Moctezuma was killed, although the sources do not agree on who killed him. Individuals and groups laud their own accomplishments, while often denigrating or ignoring those of their opponents or their allies or both. The troops started in the palace of Xacayatzin, and then on to Chialinco and Yetzcoloc. The Fall Of The Aztec Empire Essay. The besiegers cut off the supply of food and destroyed the aqueduct carrying water to the city. After the Spanish conquest of central Mexico, expeditions were sent further northward in Mesoamerica, to the region known as La Gran Chichimeca. The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, also known as the Conquest of Mexico (1519–21),[6] was one of the primary events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Spanish friars taught indigenous tribes to write their own languages in Latin letters, which soon became a self-perpetuating tradition at the local level. The Spanish's situation could only deteriorate. [47]:247, In April 1520, Cortés was told by Moctezuma, that a much larger party of Spanish troops, consisting of nineteen ships and fourteen hundred soldiers under the command of Pánfilo de Narváez, had arrived. Over the next three years, the conquistadores brought the whole of Mesoamerica under Spanish rule and established the colony of New Spain. Some of these reasons were poor relationships with other tribes, economic troubles, the Spaniards weaponry while in battle, and the disease known as smallpox was spreading. They were given by Cortés to Pedro de Alvarado and Juan Velázquez de León respectively. Moctezuma II was killed, the city was sacked, and the Aztec Empire was taken over by the Spanish. White, John Manchip. Garibay. [42]:11 According to Diaz, "These Caciques also told us of a tradition they had heard from their ancestors, that one of the idols which they particularly worshipped had prophesied the coming of men from distant lands in the direction of the sunrise, who would conquer them and rule them. After defeating the local natives in two battles, he discovered a far more valuable asset in the form of a woman whom Cortés would have christened Marina. Diaz, B., 1963, The Conquest of New Spain, London: Penguin Books. [79] On the causeway where the two groups met, enormous numbers of people from Tenochtitlan watched the exchange. Cortés, who had not yet decided to start a war with the Aztec Empire, decided to offer a compromise. Released Dec 8th, 2020.Ranked 21,699 of 151,099 with 1 (1 today) downloads. [42]:26[47]:89–91, Faced with imprisonment or death for defying the governor, Cortés' only alternative was to continue his enterprise in the hope of redeeming himself with the Spanish Crown. Cortés's conquest has been depicted in numerous television documentaries. Although the Aztec religion once played a role in building the Empire, you must understand that it is what caused the end of Empire. After eight months of battles and negotiations, which overcame the diplomatic resistance of the Aztec Emperor Moctezuma II to his visit, Cortés arrived in Tenochtitlan on 8 November 1519, where he took up residence with fellow Spaniards and their indigenous allies. MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History (2014): 58. Doña Marina quickly learned Spanish, and became Cortés's primary interpreter, confidant, consort, cultural translator, and the mother of his first son, Martin. Indigenous accounts were written in pictographs as early as 1525. [47]:127–28, Cortés learned of an indigenous settlement called Cempoala and marched his forces there. Even some foods associated with Mesoamerican religious practice, such as amaranth, were forbidden. p. 92, Townsend, Camilla. They captured the Cholulan leaders Tlaquiach and Tlalchiac and then ordered the city to be set on fire. For instance, the Spaniards' timing of entry, the compelling ideologies of both groups, and the Spanish unfamiliarity with the Aztec empire. sfn error: no target: CITEREFClodfelter2017 (. As a result, the Aztec's tactics countering the Spaniard's advanced technology is understated. This episode is called "La Noche Triste" (The Night of Sorrows), and the old tree ("El árbol de la noche triste") where Cortés allegedly cried, is still a monument in Mexico City. Because the Aztecs had removed the bridges over the gaps in the causeways that linked the city to the surrounding lands, Cortés' men constructed a portable bridge to cross the water of the lake. [58] Cortés also contrived to have his men name him military leader and chief magistrate (judge) of the expedition. Tlaxcalteca sue for peace after many days of battling. Tenochtitlan had been almost totally destroyed using the manpower of the Tlaxcalans plus fire and cannon fire during the siege, and once it finally fell, the Spanish continued its destruction, as they soon began to establish the foundations of what would become Mexico City on the site. The Manila Galleon brought in far more silver direct from South American mines to China than the overland Silk Road, or even European trade routes in the Indian Ocean could. [34] Cortés's right-hand man, Pedro de Alvarado did not write at any length about his actions in the New World, and died as a man of action in the Mixtón War in 1542. Two letters to Cortés about Alvarado's campaigns in Guatemala are published in The Conquistadors. [47]:193, 199, Cortés and his men entered Cholula without active resistance. The Spanish conquest of Mexico had antecedents with established practices.[18]. "A direct attack on a city as mighty as Tenochtitlan was unlikely and unexpected" from the enemy empires. As of 14 November 1519, Moctezuma was Cortés' prisoner as insurance against any further resistance, until the end of May 1520, Moctezuma lived with Cortés in the palace of Axayácatl. The Aztecs pursued and harassed the Spanish, who, guided by their Tlaxcalan allies, moved around Lake Zumpango towards a sanctuary in Tlaxcala. [68] This may have also come from a mis-translation of the version of the story written in Latin.[69]. Conquerors' accounts exaggerate individual contributions to the Conquest at the expense of their comrades, while indigenous allies' accounts stress their loyalty and importance to victory for the Spanish. Listen Live open in itunes. The end of this latter campaign is generally marked by the downfall of the Maya state based at Tayasal in the Petén region, in 1697. Many of the Spaniards, weighed down by their armor and booty, drowned in the causeway gaps or were killed by the Aztecs. "Malintzin's Choices: An Indian Woman in the Conquest of Mexico" University of New Mexico Press, 2006. p, 36. Two key works by historian Charles Gibson, Tlaxcala in the Sixteenth Century (1952)[90] and his monograph The Aztecs Under Spanish Rule: A History of the Indians of the Valley of Mexico, 1519–1810 (1964)[91] were central in reshaping the historiography of the indigenous and their communities from the Spanish Conquest to the 1810 Mexican independence era.[92]. Scholars who were part of a branch of Mesoamerican ethnohistory, more recently called the New Philology have, using indigenous texts in the indigenous languages, been able to examine in considerable detail how the indigenous lived during the era of Spanish colonial rule. The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, also known as the Conquest of Mexico (1519–21), was one of the primary events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Had cut off the city was Tlaxcala and he was tortured and executed in Mexico, use! 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