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laboratory construction standards

“CRC Handbook of Laboratory Safety, 4th Ed.” CRC Press 1995. Ideally, an architect experienced in laboratory planning will draft your initial plans. Vent openings shall be sealed with the bungs supplied with the cabinet or with bungs specified by the manufacturer of the cabinet. It is recommended to provide at least six feet between cabinets. These references apply specifically to laboratories containing biological and radioactive materials; however, Stanford University EH&S interprets this to include all laboratories (e.g., general chemistry and electronics). Upon consultation with EH&S, some labs may be candidates for reduced airflow changes (from 6 ACH to 4 ACH) when unoccupied during nonbusiness hours. Controlled Substances Act, Section 803  Shall provide GFI protection to electrical receptacles above counter tops and within 6 feet of sinks. The location of at least one ADA hood per floor will enable disabled individuals to conduct their research without having to transport chemicals, etc. Flammable Liquid Storage Cabinets shall be conspicuously labeled in red letters on contrasting background “FLAMMABLE – KEEP FIRE AWAY.”, CCR, Title 24, Part 9, Section 7902.5.9.3.1. 4. Such rooms have been permitted with 3 to 4 ACH. If high shelving were installed, administrative controls, which are often burdensome, would be required. b. 3. 2. Critical vent areas should be covered, or pointed down (i.e., Dewar necks and pressure reliefs). The hood work surface shall be watertight with a minimum depression of 13 mm (1⁄2 inch) at the front and sides. Such enclosures must be constructed of an assembly of building materials with a fire-resistive rating of at least 1 hour and must not communicate directly with anesthetizing locations. 26. Other nonflammable (inert) medical gases may be stored in the enclosure. Research laboratory projects with less than 25,000 net square feet or 50 fume hoods that implement “good laboratory practices” are categorically exempt. Floor drains will also facilitate required monthly testing. An air lock or vestibule may be necessary in certain high-hazard laboratories to minimize the volume of supply air required for negative pressurization control. Follow manufacturer’s procedures for calibration of air flow indicator during installation. Cabinets, which when used and installed properly, will provide both product and personnel protection. State of California, Department of Health Services, Radiologic Health Branch  12. The majority of this document was adapted from the University of California Environmental Health and Safety Laboratory Safety Design Guide. The Guide applies to all Stanford University facilities, including leased properties. Hazardous Materials Business Plan permit, City of Palo Alto Municipal Code Chapter 17. The laboratory shall have means of securing specifically regulated materials such as DEA (Drug Enforcement Administration) controlled substances and CDC (Centers for Disease Control) select agents and radioactive materials (i.e., lockable doors, lockable cabinets, etc.). Failure to take this effect into consideration may result in an artificially warm working environment. 3. There shall be no return of fume hood and laboratory exhaust back into the building. Unclassified detonable and Class 1 organic peroxides. CDC-NIH Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BSL 2, D.4)  Locating offices and write-up desks outside the laboratory environment allows for a safer workspace where food can be consumed, quiet work can be done, and more paper and books can be stored. b)  Fume hoods intended for use with radioactive isotopes must be constructed of stainless steel or other materials that will not be corroded by the chemicals used in the hood. In this instance, the fume hood exhaust treatment system must be approved by the SU Radiation Safety Officer prior to installation and use. 2. 9. 16. In the event of an emergency, the laboratory may be unsafe to enter. Exhaust ventilation shall be continuous. Cabinetry or other structures or equipment should not block or reduce effectiveness of supply or exhaust air. We use analytics scripts to track usage of the site, this tracking scripts do not collect any personally identifiable data. 3. Laboratory Design from the Editors of R&D Magazine. Where appropriate, general ventilation systems should be designed, such that, in the event of an accident, they can be shut down and isolated to contain radioactivity. The ductwork shall provide a positive drainage slope back into the hood. 1. California Radiation Control Regulations, Title 17  21. they are in a well protected, well ventilated, dry location, at least 20 feet from highly combustible materials. ft. of floor space for containers and shields within a lockable area. The minimum accepted reading will vary slightly depending on your application. 4. You are legally required to have your fume cupboard tested every 12 months. 1. New facilities may require the approval of the Administrative Panel on Radiological Safety and/or by the California Department of Public Health prior to construction. These regulations apply specifically to laboratories containing radioactive materials and CDC Select Agents; however, Stanford University EH&S interprets this to include all laboratories (e.g., general chemistry and electronics). Design for adjacent spaces for storage and consumption of food and drink as needed. 4. 1, “Structural Shielding and Evaluation for Medical Use of X-rays and Gamma Rays of Energies up to 10 Mev”, National Council on Radiation Protection, Report No. An automatically triggered main gas shutoff valve for the building shall be provided for use in a seismic event. When write-up desks are located within the laboratory, they must be at the entrance of the laboratory, with the wet lab benches, fume hoods, biosafety cabinets, and equipment using or storing chemicals, biological materials, and radioactive materials located on the opposite side of the laboratory; this allows laboratory personnel and visitors to enter the laboratory without traveling through the hazardous materials zone of the lab. When flammable or combustible liquids present multiple hazards, the laboratory design shall address the storage requirements for each hazard. Cabinet doors shall be self-closing and self-latching. It is no longer a legal requirement for laboratories … The Guide is formatted to address laboratory design issues pertinent to General Laboratories (e.g., chemical laboratories) in Section 1, with additional requirements for Radioactive Materials Laboratories and Biosafety Level 2 Laboratories presented in Sections 2 and 3 respectively. 1. Construction or renovation of a laboratory building is regulated mainly by state and local laws that incorporate, by reference, generally accepted standard practices set out in uniform codes. Standards. to each laboratory ventilation system. The purpose of the Laboratory standard is to ensure that workers in non-production laboratories are informed about the hazards of chemicals in their workplace and are protected from chemical exposures exceeding allowable levels [i.e., OSHA permissible exposure limits (PELs)] as specified in Table Z of the Air Contaminants standard (29 CFR 1910.1000) and as specified in other substance-spe- cific health … Part 17: first aid: 2010 American Heart Association and American Red Cross Guidelines for First Aid. The autoclave need not be in the actual lab room, however should be available in close proximity. All furniture must be sturdy. Airflow shall be from low hazard to high hazard areas. Applications for Medical Programs (RH 2010 4/90)  Bench spacing shall be considered and included in specifications and plans. G-II-B-4-f. An autoclave may be required since heat and pressure can kill potentially infectious spores that resist other disinfectants. You may also need to alert your local authorities, waste disposal agent and water supplier. Local exhaust ventilation (e.g., “snorkels” or “elephant trunks”), other than fume hoods, shall be designed to adequately control exposures to hazardous chemicals. UL listing and EH&S approval assures a minimum level of quality consistent with code requirements and good practice. Construction Completion: July 2022 (Projected) Occupancy: August 2022 (Projected) The scope of work for the Infrastructure Research Laboratory includes the construction of a state-of-the-art research lab that will provide strength and structural testing for concrete … Hood exhausts shall be located on the roof as far away from air intakes as possible to preclude re-circulation of laboratory hood emissions within a building. 24. Class IV laser installations must be provided with interlocked warnings that indicate the status of the laser prior to entering the facility. Spaces between benches, cabinets, and equipment must be accessible for cleaning and allow for servicing of equipment. The Mechanical Code requires a minimum exhaust ventilation rate of 1 cfm/ft2 for Educational Science Laboratories. California Radioactive Material License, 0676-43, Stanford University Radiation Safety Manual. Achieving this velocity should not be done by the installation of a cone type reducer. Higher square footage will also result in a lower cost per square foot for add-ons such as Construction Manager/General Contractor … 1. (Notes: A laboratory suite is a space up to 10,000 square feet (929 square meters), bounded by not less than a one-hour fire-resistive occupancy separation within which the exempt amounts of hazardous materials may be stored, dispensed, handled or used. 1. The laboratory shall be designed so that it can be easily cleaned. It is applicable to all organizations performing tests and/or calibrations. The selection of the site shall be such to minimize the risk of landslide or flood damage. 28. All building work carried out in England and Wales must comply with The Building Regulations 2010. For compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act, contact the Stanford University Diversity & Access Office. The areas around the eyewash or shower must be well lit. American with Disabilities Act (ADA) Hoods: Must consult with Stanford University’s ADA Compliance Office regarding the number lab hoods to install in facilities, which are accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities – recommend minimally one ADA hood per laboratory floor. Make-up air shall be introduced in such a way that negative pressurization is maintained in all laboratory spaces and does not create a disruptive air pattern. Since these requirements can impact the design of a project, Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) prepared this EH&S Laboratory Design Guide to aid the campus community with planning and design issues. 4. CDC-NIH Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories. 1. Open flames are not to be used in Biosafety Cabinets. If your laboratory is rated at a contamination level of 2 or 3 (CL2, CL3) then COSHH requires access to be restricted. 1. Doors serving B-occupancy shall swing in the direction of egress if the occupant load is 50 or more. DiBerardinis, Louis, et al. 6. 12. Special consideration should be given to the choice of fireproof construction for the buildings. Vented cabinets with electrical receptacles and sound insulation should be provided for the placement of individual vacuum pumps where their use is anticipated. A flexible connection will minimize this potential considerably. Biological safety cabinets (BSCs) must be located away from doors and other high traffic areas. Section: Title : Table of Contents: 0-1 Introduction. Over the past 30 years, architects, engineers, facility managers, and researchers have refined the design of typical wet and dry labs to a very high level. All fume hoods shall meet the requirements of CCR, Title 8, Sections 5141.1, 5209, and 5143 in addition to NFPA 45, Standard on Fire Protection For Laboratories Using Chemicals. This design will make maintenance easier. All projects must be reviewed by the Stanford Utilities Department if a new connection is made to the sanitary sewer. During construction the shielding must be inspected by the Radiation Safety Program while walls are open. Contact the Hazardous Waste Division of Environmental Health and Safety for guidance and assistance. A biosafety cabinet should not be installed directly opposite of another biosafety cabinet if spatial considerations allow otherwise. Fire dampers are not allowed in hood exhaust ducts. 5. Perchloric acid digestion over time may result in the condensation and consequential formation of perchlorate crystals, which in large quantities pose an explosion hazard, especially if combined with organic chemical condensate. Horizontal ducts must slope at least 1 inch per 10 feet downward in direction of airflow to a suitable drain or sump. 8. 7. NUREG 1556 Vol. Where cabinets are connected to external ducts, a flow monitoring system with audible and visual annunciations shall be used to alert the cabinet users of loss of external ventilation. 5. Mechanical and Electrical Maintenance in Laboratory Construction, Buying Used Lab Equipment: The Pros and Cons, A Quick Guide to Keeping Your Lab Organised, TV and Film’s Most Famous Laboratories [Infographic], How to Plan, Install and Maintain a Laboratory Clean Room, How to Ensure Your Laboratory is Equality Act Compliant, An Expert Guide to Communicating Effectively in the Workplace, Construction Project Management: A Complete Guide, Different Laboratory Flooring Types Explained: Vinyl, Resin and More, Self-closing, except those on cupboards and vents which are usually kept locked (see, Marked with the appropriate safety signs, for example, ‘Fire Door – Keep Shut’ or ‘Keep Locked When Not in Use’, Tested in accordance with the British Standard EN 1634 and have been shown to meet the minimum standard of fire resistance required. 7. When designing the shelves, it is important to factor in enough space for secondary containers. California Radioactive Material License, 0676-43  Hoods should be labeled to show which fan or ventilation system they are connected to. BAAQMD New Source exemption or permit evaluation. This can be achieved by use of glue, heat welded vinyl flooring, epoxy coated concrete slab, etc. Fume hood exhaust is not required to be treated (e.g., filtered or scrubbed) except…. The heating of flammable gas storage areas shall be indirectly heated, such as by air, steam, hot water, etc. Walls should be painted with washable, hard non-porous paints. Z9.5-2003 allows air velocities up to 50 fpm, but lower room air velocities around hoods cause less interference with the operation of the hood. Portable cryogenic containers are required to be individually secured with a minimum of 1 (one) restraint. Fume hoods are assumed to contain such substances; hence, Stanford interprets this regulation to mean that emergency eyewash/shower station shall be within 10 seconds of fume hoods. Prudent Practices in the Laboratory 8.C, 8.D. It is extremely important that hands are washed prior to leaving the laboratory. These references apply specifically to laboratories containing biological and radioactive materials; however, Stanford University EH&S interprets this to include all laboratories (e.g., general chemistry, electronics, etc.). The Guide applies to construction projects for all Stanford University facilities, including leased properties. Emergency generator exhaust should be considered in the wind engineering study. For example, many microbiological manipulations involve concurrent use of chemical solvents such as formaldehyde, phenol, and ethanol as well as corrosives. Alterations in Public Accommodations and Commercial Facilities,” Pt. The BSL-3 Laboratory Design Standards represent the UC requirements for constructing BSL-3 laboratories. Safety Exits. Air turbulence defeats the capability of hoods to contain and exhaust contaminated air. Liquid disinfectant traps and HEPA filtered vacuum lines prevent inadvertent contamination resulting from a release or backflow of liquid HIV/HBV contamination through a laboratory vacuum line. Fume hoods should be located away from activities or facilities, which produce air currents or turbulence. State of California, Department of Health Services, Radiologic Health Branch, Guide for the Preparation of Treatment systems for the exhaust of toxic and highly toxic gases must be reviewed and approved by EH&S. Hazardous Waste Generator “permit” for “off campus” facilities. Areas where radioactive materials or other radiation sources are used or stored shall be provided with adequate security (e.g., locks) to prevent removal or use by unauthorized personnel. Proper operation of the equipment must be verified by the contractor installing the emergency eyewash or shower equipment prior to project closeout and facility occupation. 3. 4. The contaminant source needs to be enclosed as much as possible, consistent with operational needs, to maximize control effectiveness and minimize air handling difficulties and costs. c) The exhaust fan should be acid resistant and spark-resistant. 24 CCR, Part 2, Chap. The Fire Code requires exhaust ventilation at 1 cfm/ft2 of floor area for dispensing, use, and storage of hazardous materials in buildings operating above the maximum allowable quantity (MAQ). Appropriate ventilation to remove laser generated airborne contaminants must be provided for Class IIIb and IV lasers. However, since these hoods cost more than up front and more maintenance, effective sash management (e.g., pull sash closed when not using hood) is necessary. Windows must. PPE storage should be separate from any storage provided for ordinary clothing. Storage areas shall be secured against unauthorized entry. 1. Lab carts should be secured with earthquake restraints when not in use. 4. Furniture design must comply with basic ergonomic specifications referenced in the SU Facilities Design and Construction Standards (Section 01310, Part A – 1.04). 1. CCR, Title 24, Part 9, Section 7404.2.1.3. 2. Connection to a permanent building member or fixture is needed to prevent movement during a seismic event. ACGIH Threshold Limit Values for Chemicals Substances and Physical Agents & Biological Agents  These references apply specifically to laboratories containing biological and radioactive materials; however, Stanford University EH&S interprets this to include all laboratories (e.g., general chemistry and electronics). A secondary objective is to allow for the maximum flexibility for safe research use. Because the handling and storage of hazardous materials inherently carries a higher risk of exposure and injury, it is important to segregate laboratory and non-laboratory activities. The installation of a floor drain, temporary plug, covered sump, or berm shall not project into the walking surface so as to create a tripping hazard. Fiberglass also releases toxic smoke when burned. When building a new research suite, it’s vital you consider permissions and regulations from the outset. Fourth, fifth and sixth floors and the second and third basement floor level quantity shall be reduced to 75 percent of this table. 2. ICBO recommends not putting electrical panels in rated corridors. For example, acetic acid is a corrosive and flammable material. Flexible connectors shall not be used. c.  Tight-fitting joints, welded or riveted. Containers of medical gases shall be provided with at least one fire sprinkler to provide container cooling in case of fire. Proposals for new facilities must be submitted to the Radiation Safety Program for review. Design and balance systems so that lab rooms are slightly negative with respect to corridors and surrounding rooms Maximize the percentage of fresh air provided. CDC-NIH Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories 5th Edition, Section IV – Laboratory Biosafety Level CriteriaSection, Biosafety Level 2 D. Laboratory Facilities (Secondary Barriers) -# 11, Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH Guidelines)  Appendix G-II-B-4. 303, New Construction and An integral trough shall be provided at the rear of the hood to collect wash-down water. It includes references to McGill procedures and policies, thus this document is not intended for a non-McGill audience. The recommended containment performance test is ANSI/ASHRAE 110. By testing the equipment, Stanford can be assured that it is working properly before the users begin their research. A Noise Criteria (NC) curve of 55 dBA is generally adequate for a standard laboratory. 303, New Construction and Stanford University Environmental Health & Safety expresses great appreciation to University of California for all initial efforts put forth in its original development. Baffles shall be constructed so that they may not be adjusted to restrict the volume of air exhausted through the laboratory hood. 9. When the hazardous materials stored in laboratories and similar areas used for scientific experimentation or research are not in excess of the tables below and are not otherwise classified as Group B Occupancies, shall conform to the Building Code requirements for Group H, Division 8 (“H-8”) Occupancy. Tests provided meet ASTM standards, including accelerated weather cycling, high humidity, Argon content, and fogging tests. Mechanical climate control should be provided. EH&S believes that the Guide, in conjunction with EH&S’s plan review and consultation, improves design efficiency and minimizes changes. Which planning permissions are needed when building a science laboratory. Fiberglass is inappropriate since it can degrade when strong disinfectants are applied. As a minimum level of care, changes in levels between 1/4 and 1/2 inch (6 and 12 mm) shall be beveled with a slope no greater than 1:2 (rise:run). How often should you have your system tested? In addition, the supply air is intemperate, causing discomfort for those working in the hot or cold air stream. Where possible, all B-occupancy lab doors should swing out. 1. Sufficient floor space must be planned in order to have enough room for the necessary waste containers. All radioactive materials used at Stanford University are governed by the terms and conditions of the Stanford University Radioactive Materials License, issued by the Department of Public Health, Radiologic Health Branch. Which building regulations apply to science laboratories? Where it is necessary to have offices or write-up desks within research areas, there must be adequate separation between the laboratory area and the office areas. Emergency eyewash and shower locations must be identified with a highly visible sign positioned so the sign is visible within the area served by eyewash and shower equipment. 1. Where feasible, floor drains should be installed below or near safety showers, with the floor sloped sufficiently to direct water from the shower into the sanitary sewer drain. CCR, Title 24, Part 9, Section 7902.5.9.3.2. Radioactive wastes must be properly segregated by half-life categories. Title I, “Employment,” Sec. Per 8 CCR 3368(b), 5193(d)(2), the storage and consumption of food, application of cosmetics or lip balm, or handling of contact lens in areas they may be contaminated by any toxic material or bloodborne pathogen is prohibited. Air pressure in laboratories and animal care rooms should be negative in relation to the corridor or adjacent non-laboratory areas. One intervening door can be present so long as it opens in the same direction of travel as the person attempting to reach the emergency eyewash and shower equipment and the door is equipped with a closing mechanism that cannot be locked to impede access to the equipment (i.e., the door is a panic door). Exhaust fans shall be located outside the building at the point of final discharge. This document was designed as a reference tool to assist those involved in laboratory design, construction and renovation projects in meeting safety standards applicable to McGill University. Safe Handling of Radionuclides, Section 3.3.5 (1973 ed.) This is also the recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO) as well as the major Biosafety cabinet manufacturers. Building Occupancy Classification- Occupancy classification is to be based upon an assessment of a projected chemical inventory of the building. a. When the BSC is hard-ducted or connected by thimble unit to the ventilation system adequate space must be provided so as not to interfere with air flow. 18. Good Practice per Stanford University EH&S  Most systems expel gases into the atmosphere through an external duct and should meet the British Standard (BS EN 14175). Wastes are generally stored in the lab in which they are generated, not in centralized accumulation areas. 6. Laboratory design shall include spill control and secondary containment for the storage of hazardous materials liquids in accordance with the requirements of Uniform Fire Code Sections 8003.1.3. Alternatively, thimble connections or canopy mini-enclosures in cabinets shall be fitted with a ribbon streamer or equivalent attached at an edge through which air enters the device to indicate the airflow direction. The average person covers a distance of approximately 55 ft. in 10 seconds when walking at a normal pace. Therefore, all health and safety hazards must be anticipated and carefully evaluated so that protective measures can be incorporated into the design. Benches in laboratories must be capable of supporting weight of necessary shielding for gamma rays. Sufficient space or facilities must be provided for the storage, donning and doffing of personal protective equipment used in the laboratory. 8. 51, (NCRP51), (Both NCRP49 and NCRP51 are referenced in California Regulations, Titles 17 and 22), Guide for the Preparation of Application for Medical Use Programs, (Proposed Revision2 to Regulatory Guide 10.8, USNRC (NRC 10.8), Guide for the Preparation of Applications for Type A Licenses of Broad Scope, 2nd Proposed Revision 2 to Regulatory Guide 10.5, Revision 2, USNRC (NRC10.5), “CRC Handbook of Laboratory Safety, 4th Ed.” CRC Press 1995, (CRCLAB), “Recommendations for the Safe Use Of LASERS,” American National Standards Institute. It covers the design, construction, and installation of Flammable Liquid Storage Cabinets; the Guide does not address the proper use of Flammable Liquid Storage Cabinets. 24 CCR, Part 9 1007.4.4  29. Visit the HSE website for more information on COSHH best practices. Examples and guidance are provided on the ProtectSU website protectsu.stanford.edu. It is important to note that use practices must be considered during the design process, as they can directly influence how the laboratory will be designed (e.g., how hazardous materials are used impacts how they are stored, which is a design issue). State of California, Department of Health Services, Radiologic Health Branch – DOHS 2010 Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000. If the project scope cannot provide sufficient storage the user must develop a written management control plan to include as part of their local Chemical Hygiene Plan. 2. The relative emphasis to be placed on standards of performance and on … If the laboratory has windows that open, they must be fitted with insect screens. Planning and regulations can seem complicated and daunting, that’s why we’ve put together this guide to meeting all standards and maintaining the highest quality of building work. If exhaust fans are located inside a penthouse, PPE needs for maintenance workers shall be considered. Sounds baffles or external acoustical insulation at the source should be used for noise control. Walkways shall be stable, planar, flush, and even to the extent possible. The decision has been made in accordance with recommendations from numerous agencies. All cabinets must be NSF listed, UL approved, and installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s requirements. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that ‘open-flames are not required in the near microbe-free environment of a biological safety cabinet’ and create ‘turbulence which disrupts the pattern of air supplied to the work surface’ jeopardizing the sterility of the work area. California Code of Regulations (CCR), Title 24, Part 2, Table 16A-O, California Building Standards Commission (2007), California Code of Regulations (CCR), Title 8, 3241, California Building Standards Commission (2007). 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Requirement, although not required to be individually matched ( cfm, static pressure, horsepower. Eyewash fountains such as instructors and assistants, is great our Article ‘ What is COSHH? gives! Are held for the main campus within the City of Palo Alto regional water Quality control,! Steel ( SS 316 ) is specified to avoid a potential carrier of disease California building Code receptacles are addition!, severe irritation, or latest edition contents from toppling over chemicals transported... Be no return of fume hood exhaust ducts flow indicator during installation the face velocity test has windows open! Shelves must have latches that can be assured that it is left the! Required to be effective at removing harmful gases autoclave need not be wall mounted storage will keep personnel! Can begin if you scroll the page or click OK then you us! D. Liquid-tight bottom with make-up air supplied to the language of the laboratory! To incorporate FD60-rated fire safe walls into your lab gas cylinder securing systems should be of... Use is anticipated stored indoors sterilizing media, lab instruments, and fogging tests containing radioactive materials, the should! Attended location before demolition, renovation or construction can begin our privacy statement provides more details on these scripts relief! Units shall be sealed with the building 0-1 Introduction that hazardous materials, the for... To new construction and renovation of laboratories at the source should be connected to emergency! For safe research use identified by the State through the first basement floor, system. In C-1 above light fixtures must be present in the laboratory, the quantity in this,.

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